What is a vine
The vine is a liana-like plant with lignified stems. Many call grapes a tree, but this is not true. Rather, it is a bush with flexible branches that cling to a support. The vine has a special structure and a development cycle. For it to bear fruit, it must be properly looked after.
What is a vine
Grapes are a plant from the class Dicotyledons, of the order of Grape-flowering, family of Grape. The vine is called shoots, and sometimes the whole bush, bringing delicious fruits. The species grows on different continents. The following groups are distinguished at the place of origin:
- North American
- East Asian.
For thousands of years people have been cultivating the vine, and it has firmly entered the culture of many peoples. The image of branches and bunches can be seen on antique Greek vases, walls of buildings of ancient Rome, in the Egyptian pyramids. She became an important symbol in Judaism and Christianity.
Today, hundreds of canteens and technical varieties are bred. Grapes are widely used: wine, juices, jams are made from it. Berries are eaten fresh, dried, candied. The benefits of sweet fruits rich in vitamins are enormous, they even have medicinal properties. Some varieties are used for decoration, weaving.
Grapes are grown from seeds or cuttings. The vine consists of the following parts:
- stem or trunk;
- sleeves with annual shoots;
- temporary organs: leaves, flowers and berries.
The root sprouts either from grape seeds or from the buds of the lower part of the petiole. From its development depends on how lush and productive the vine will grow. This is the reason why it is so important to root the stalk well or to allow the seed to germinate normally.
The root system is located on 3 levels. The top plays a minor role in the transfer of nutrients to the branches. Middle - these are lateral roots, their role is also insignificant. The main load on the absorption of nutrients is carried by deep roots.
The old thick roots, covered with bark, transmit nutrients to the aerial parts of the plant. Young play a connecting role between the old and the roots. Small roots have many villi, with the help of which minerals and organics are taken from the soil. In the late autumn they die off, and in the spring grow again.
The spine consists of 3 parts:
- tip with a yellow cap;
- growth zones;
- absorption zones with many small villi.
The development and size of the root system depends on the type of soil, the content of nutrients in it. It is desirable to achieve that the lower part at the root of the vine is the most branched, has 5-6 orders of magnitude.
The aerial part of the plant
The aerial part consists of a trunk and shoots
The aerial part of the vine includes a shtamb (trunk) and sleeves with annual shoots. In summer, on annual shoots that have matured, leaves, antennae, inflorescences and fruits appear.
Stamp or barrel
The young vine of the first year does not yet have a lignified trunk. If it germinates from a seed, one stem appears above the surface. 2-3 stems grow from the stem, depending on the number of buds left on the surface during planting. At the beginning, the branching of the stem is monopodial, the structure of the vine is five-beam, and the leaves grow in a spiral. Then the structure changes.
The formed young trunk consists of nodes and internodes. Each node has a septum or diaphragm. It distinguishes 4 sides:
Fibers, core, bark and wood are better developed on the ventral side, therefore it is slightly convex. During the period of intensive growth, the dorsal side elongates faster, the vine bends towards the abdominal side. When growth ends, it becomes even. The lateral sides are wider in area than the ventral and dorsal. Well, the structure of the stem is visible in the section.
The lower part of the trunk is called the head, it is located on the border with the root. There are sleeping kidneys in the head area. Normally, they do not develop, but are able to give new shoots when freezing or pruning too vigorously.
Sleeves and annual shoots
To grow a vine, it is constantly pruned. In the process of trimming, sleeves, perennial lignified branches are formed. In a normal grape bush, 6-8 such branches are formed. On them are fruit arrows and knots of substitution. If the vine gave more sleeves, they are completely cut off.
Arrows or annual shoots develop from wintering buds. They are covered with a thin green bark with no signs of lignification. It is on annual shoots that leaves, flowers and fruits grow. Thick annual branches that do not bear fruit are called “fattening shoots”. They take away plant juices, reduce productivity. Leaving such branches is harmful, they are disposed of during summer pruning.
Leaves and antennae
The leaves have an opposite arrangement, composed of petiole, stipulus and plate. Stipules quickly fall. Petiole is thick; nutrients enter the leaf through it. The sheet plate is wide and smooth. The color of the leaf is green; veins of several orders penetrate it.
In the bosom of the leaves there are main and stepson buds. The latter give rise to thin stems - stepsons. They are not as strong as annual shoots. The leaves are small, light green. On stepsons, fruits sometimes ripen, but the clusters are weak, often fall off. Stepson recommend removing. They are left only in cases when a poor harvest is expected.
Thin antennae grow from the internodes, in structure they resemble branches. They are located opposite to the leaves. They constantly rotate, a full circle is carried out in an hour. With the help of the antennae, the vine twists and clings to the support. These thin shoots twist around the net, sticks, cling to the arch, for the railing or other fastening, support thick branches.
Inflorescences and fruits
Grapes pollinated by the wind
The vine has a green hue flower. It looks inconspicuous, located on a cluster of inflorescences, which are laid and formed in wintering buds. In another way, the inflorescence is called a “panicle”. In one panicle, 200 to 1500 flowers are placed. Often at its base tendrils develop.
The corolla of the flower looks like a small cap. It falls away at the beginning of flowering. In modern varieties and hybrids, flowers are same-sex (male or female) and bisexual. Men have well-developed stamens with an atrophied pestle. Female - large pestle without stamens. In bisexual reproductive organs are equally developed. Grapes are pollinated by the wind. For successful fertilization, the air temperature should not be lower than 15 ° C, and the optimum - 25 ° C-30 ° C.
The berries are small, round and green at first. Then they stretch and change color. Depending on the variety, they are yellow, pink, blue or purple. The number of clusters on a branch depends on the season, age of the vine, variety.
Stages of vine development
Growing a vine requires an understanding of the stages of its development. The correct preparation of grapes for spring or wintering, care during the fruiting period depends on this. There are 7 stages in total:
- the beginning of the movement of juices, or crying;
- growth phase;
- cluster growth;
- ripening berries;
- leaf fall;
- rest period.
The beginning of the movement of juices
This phase begins in the spring, when the soil temperature in the root area rises to 8 ° C-10 ° C. The juice at the vine of the vine stands out so intensely that it drips like a tear, it “cries”. This does not harm the plant, but the branches should be trimmed before the movement of the juices. If the weather is dry, too much tearing becomes a cause of reduced yields.
The duration of the phase is 10-20 days.
The vine begins to grow after crying, when the temperature in the street rises to 10 ° C-15 ° C and above. At this time, proper care is of great importance. The size of young shoots per day increases by 6-10 cm. When the length becomes 30-35 cm, the branches are tied.
When a tree grows intensively, it is surely fed to accelerate the ripening of shoots. Mineral and organic fertilizers are applied once or twice.
Growth period is a favorable time for processing the vine from parasites and diseases. By the time the berries form and ripen, the chemicals will have time to decompose and not penetrate the fruits.
Weak inflorescences must be removed
The vine blooms 15-20 days, in late May or early June. 2-3 weeks before its start, root dressing is performed. When the grapes bloom, monitor the number of inflorescences. If there are too many, the weak are removed. Fertilization can interfere with weather conditions: too low air temperature, rain, hail, drought. In such cases, artificial pollination is carried out.
Berry Growth and Ripening
During the period of growth, special actions in relation to the vine do not need to be taken. The main thing is to monitor the condition of growing berries, to identify diseases and pests in time. When the clusters are poured and ripen, they mint shoots. The longest are shortened by 15-20%, stepsons are removed. This procedure improves the quality of the berries, makes them larger and sweeter. The duration of the growth and ripening phases of berries depends on the variety and weather conditions.
Leaf fall and dormancy
The leaves on the bushes begin to turn yellow and fall after harvest, from approximately mid-September to the end of October. At this time, the growth process and the movement of juices in the vine slows down, and eventually subsides completely. When the bush drops all the foliage, and the temperature approaches 0 ° C, pruning is performed. Unripe vine, fruiting branches and fatliquoring shoots are removed. Leave only sleeves with knots of substitution. During this period, seedlings are harvested.
The rest period or wintering occurs in late autumn and lasts until the beginning of spring. Dates vary, depending on the region.
In temperate zones, the vine is sheltered for the winter. It is advised to trick or cover with a film. This protects the kidneys from freezing, provides a good harvest for the next year.
How to Accelerate Vine Growth
In order for the vine to develop correctly, it should be grown under normal conditions. The plant is considered whimsical, but caring for it is simple. To accelerate growth provide:
- Normal soil. Grapes cannot tolerate salt marshes. When planting on clay soil, good drainage is put at the bottom of the pit. Peat land is mixed with sand, compost is added to the sandy soil. Lime is added to acidic soil.
- Humidity. Grapes do not like areas with high standing groundwater. He needs watering, but you can not abuse water either. A good remedy for overflow is to plant a bush in a pit with normal drainage.
- Temperature. The ideal temperature can really be set up except for seeds and cuttings during the rooting and germination period. To do this, a young plant is kept at home or arrange for him a small greenhouse. For the winter, the vine is covered in cold regions, otherwise it freezes. To protect the root system, the vine is planted in deep trenches. If the street is too hot, the bush slows down growth, needs more intensive watering.
- Lighting. In order for the grapes to grow normally, the berries ripen well; they are planted in a lighted area protected from the wind. The south, southeast or southwest side of the building, the hillside, will do.
When growing vines from seeds, stratification is mandatory. They are kept in wet sand at a low temperature, they are treated with stimulants to quickly root the cuttings.
Diseases and pests of the vine
Vines slow growth and reduce yield when sick or affected by pests. To help the plant in time, look at the symptoms of the disease. Some of them:
- Cancer. This is a bacterial disease that occurs after trimming with poorly crafted tools. It is manifested by bloating, white blistering growths.
- Anthracosis. Causes fungal disease. Small brown spots appear on branches, leaves and fruits, which merge quickly. The berry cracks or falls.
- Mildew or downy mildew. It occurs with high humidity, is caused by a fungus. An oily, light-green coating appears on the fruits and leaves. Most often, the disease occurs in early summer, when the berries begin to set.
- Rubella. Red spots with a yellow or light green rim appear on the leaves. Over time, the entire leaf turns red and falls off. Dark grape varieties often suffer.
- Oidium or powdery mildew. Leaves and berries are first covered with a thin cobweb, then it turns into a white coating, resembling flour or ashes. The disease causes a fungus resistant to many fungicides, so it is difficult to treat.
- Chlorosis. Pathology is caused by improper cultivation, errors in care. Leaves turn yellow and fall, the vine grows poorly.
- Cercoporosis. With this fungal pathology, yellow spots with a red rim appear on the leaves. On the bottom of the leaf, a green coating or mold appears.
- Black rot. First, brown spots and seals appear along the veins on the leaves. Then the berries are affected: they rot and shrink, and the fruiting bodies of the mushrooms become visible on the surface.
- Among pests, wasps and aphids most often attack grapes.
For the treatment of fungal diseases, fungicides, Bordeaux fluid, copper and iron sulfate are used. Pest control insecticides, arrange traps for wasps. One of the most effective methods of protection is the cultivation of varieties resistant to pathologies and parasites.