What mushrooms grow in the Bryansk region
Mushrooms belong to a special kingdom of wildlife - the kingdom of Mushrooms, which has more than 100, 000 species, and, according to some mycologists, maybe 250, 000. Most of them live and breed on land. Not all of them are edible. Edible mushrooms of the Bryansk region are harvested throughout the season - early spring, before the onset of steady colds in November.
Mushrooms in the Bryansk region
Most species of mushrooms in this region grow on various soil substrates. They participate in the formation of humus and the decomposition of organic substances (mineralization) in the soil. Depending on the species, the processes of the formation of symbiotic relationships occur next to various representatives of tree species, for example, larch or coniferous. The zone of mycorrhiza formation is individual.
A common qualitative characteristic is the presence of vitamins, trace elements and other useful substances in the structure of these forest organisms, which well complement the human food basket.
All forest mushrooms are divided according to the degree of edibility and taste categories. Depending on the presence of toxic substances, the degree of edibility is 4 categories (types):
- 1st category: edible;
- 2 category: conditionally edible;
- 3 category: inedible;
- 4th category: poisonous.
By taste, mushrooms are also divided into 4 categories:
The most delicious mushrooms belong to categories 1 and 2.
Category 1 includes mushrooms with excellent taste. It includes russula, champignon, white and breast. Mushrooms representatives of this taste category can be eaten without heat treatment.
Oilfishes, saffron mushrooms, Polish and chanterelles belong to 2 taste categories . These types make delicious soups, aperitifs and snacks.
The next group, category 3, consists of less tasty aromatic mushrooms (mushrooms, morels, honey agarics, etc.), cooks prefer to cook pastes and salads from them. It is believed that they are characterized by average taste.
Representatives of the 4th taste category have a barely perceptible aroma and preparation requires, in addition to adding spices, which will give the dish a more pleasant and piquant taste, also thorough pre-treatment. This category includes mainly all conditionally edible species.
The Bryansk mushroom picker begins to collect edible species from early spring, when the air temperature warms up to 15 ° C and the soil still stores moisture from thawed snow and the first spring rains. The season ends in early November, with the onset of steady colds.
The first mushrooms appear:
- orange pepper;
- Kalotsibe May;
- thyroid discin, etc.
Auricularia belong to real mushrooms, with unique properties. They have many useful substances that are so necessary for the human body. The appearance of the fruiting body resembles the human ear, the color - from olive and yellow to almost black.
Irina Selyutina (Biologist):
Auricularis auricularis, or Muer, a tree mushroom, by type of nutrition is:
- a parasitic organism, in the case settles on weakened trees;
- saprotroph, if for its development a mushroom chooses a dead tree.
Auricularia is useful in a number of diseases (hypertension, anemia, diabetes, obesity, etc.). It can affect the human body as a mild antibiotic for infectious diseases of the upper respiratory tract. When conducting studies, the ability of the fungus to anticoagulation, comparable with the action of heparin, was revealed.
Note. Anticoagulation is a decrease in blood coagulability when using certain medications. Heparin, an anticoagulant that prevents blood coagulation, was discovered in 1916.
Bryansk residents collect these mushrooms as whole families from elderberry, oak, maple or alder.
Towards the end of May, raincoats, russula, and waveworms appear. Hats raincoats grow quickly, literally before our eyes.
Oil mushrooms delight mushroom pickers and the end of summer
In June, the first berries and the first summer species appear, which will delight until the end of August. The names of these mushrooms:
- breasts and podgruzki;
- early field workers;
- white floats.
Some species are found only in this region. These include thrush, hygrophors, pink shrubs, lion-yellow pluteys, curly sparasses, and sheep albatrelusses.
Local residents know that if the threshers went, then the white ones would not be long in coming.
In July, after rain, the mycelium quickly gain strength and give rise to the aerial parts. Therefore, picking mushrooms at this time is a pleasure. Oilfields, aspen, boletus in this area are found at every step.
Polish and saffron mushrooms appear closer to the end of August.
The end of August and the first days of September, in the Bryansk region, are considered the most favorable days for harvesting forest gifts for the future.
A family of summer mushrooms is replaced by autumn individuals:
- breasts are white and black;
- saffron mushrooms;
Autumn champignons remain intact pests for a long time. Therefore, they are easy to sort and cook. Chanterelles after full ripening remain in marketable form for up to 10 days. Mass collection of useful young specimens of boletus and cap boletus lasts up to 14 days.
Inedible and Poisonous Mushrooms
Toadstools cause severe poisoning
In the forests there are also unfit for food:
- Amanita muscaria;
- poor grebe;
- satanic mushroom;
- bile fungus;
- False Foam;
- champignon red;
- false raincoat;
- poisonous poisonous.
Some of them are well disguised as their edible counterparts. Therefore, when harvesting, you should pay attention to small details.
Satanic is sometimes confused with cep. The difference is in the black dots on the leg and the color of the pulp. White never changes color, even when dried. The taste of the bile fungus is unpleasant, bitter.
Irina Selyutina (Biologist):
A cute-looking hat of light olive, intense green or gray color belongs to one of the most poisonous mushrooms not only in Russia, but throughout the world - a pale grebe. Unlike edible mushrooms, with which it is often confused (by inexperience or carelessness), it has a clearly noticeable thickening at the base of the leg, dressed in a kind of bag - a Volvo and a ring under the hat. Unfortunately, its toxins are not destroyed during heat treatment. The first signs (the first stage of the clinical picture) of poisoning usually appear somewhere after 6, or even 24 hours after eating the fungi. These will be: fever, vomiting, abdominal cramps, pain and muscle cramps. Then comes the period of so-called “Imaginary improvement” when a person feels better externally, but the toxins continue their work gradually. It lasts within 2-4 days (second stage). After this, the third stage appears, when signs of acute liver, kidney and heart failure along with jaundice become noticeable, pressure drops sharply and urine flow stops. The total mortality rate is more than 50%.
The most poisonous is the pale grebe. She is sometimes confused with honey mushrooms. The difference is the presence of a thin “skirt” on the leg. If one poisonous specimen gets into the finished product, it can poison everyone who tastes such a dish. The toxins are so strong that a simple touch of the toadstool causes poisoning symptoms and can be fatal.
Where is better to collect
Every lover of the “silent hunt” has its own hidden places.
- the villages of Domashovo, Kokino and Temenichi, as well as the village of Tchaikovichi: almost all edible species grow in them. Mushroom card says that they are the most popular and visited places.
- Sven village: it is better to go there for boletus. Those wishing to enjoy this view, annually gain several buckets.
You should go to the village of Suponevo for a traditionally large harvest of russula.
- Navlinsky district: famous for the presence of mushroom places with mushrooms and honey mushrooms. Near the village of Revny is a good forest with oils and mushrooms. Mushroom pickers annually remain satisfied after visiting these fruitful places.
- suburbs of Bryansk: those who do not want to travel far can pick mushrooms in this area. There are many chanterelles, mushrooms and boletus. They usually grow in groups, so if you find one mushroom, you can expect to find others.
- Pogarsky district, near the village of Novonikolsky and the village of Dolbatovo: no one will leave here without a full basket of mushrooms, there are a lot of them.
- Karacheche district, Odrino village: it is not difficult to collect a full basket of honey mushrooms.
- Seltso town: in the pine forests from this village, there are many good places with saffron mushrooms and mushrooms. Here, white is growing.
In the Krasnogorsk, Zlynkovsky and Klintsy districts, collecting is not worth anything. This area was affected by the Chernobyl accident. In the soil, a lot of radioactive cesium and forest organisms carry a mortal danger.
Bryansk region is one of the best for picking mushrooms. The region is rich in forests and good soil. The climate is favorable for a good long-term development of mycelium. When hiking in the forest, it is important to remember your own safety and take care of nature, not to break branches, not to tear unique types of flowers or mushrooms, not to light bonfires, especially during the summer heat.