What is mushroom mushroom
Mushroom mushroom green or any other species is a close relative of boletus, which grows in deciduous and coniferous forests. Most often it is found in moss, hence the name came from. About 18 species of this fungus are counted, almost all of them are edible, except for some false varieties.
What is mushroom mushroom
General description of the fungus
What does a mushroom mushroom look like and how is it classified? This species belongs to the Bazidomycete division, the Agaricomycete class, the order and the Boletovy family, the genus Xerocomus. In another it is called a goat mushroom, a strainer, a fur coat.
Over the past year, the classification has changed a bit. Some varieties belong to the genus Boroviki and Pseudobolet. Sometimes such mushrooms are called mossworms false.
Like many edible varieties, the fruit body consists of a hat with a hymenophore and legs. Height reaches 3-11 cm.
Description of the fruiting body:
- The hat. Its diameter is from 4 cm to 20 cm. The surface is dry and velvety, it often becomes sticky after rain. Dark green to brown color. In young mushrooms, the hat is convex, in old mushrooms it becomes flat, sometimes it becomes cracked. The skin is not separated from the pulp.
- The pulp is dense, the middle in some cases resembles cotton wool in consistency. The hue of the pulp is yellow, yellow-green or red; on the cut it turns blue.
- The hymenophore is not lamellar, but tubular. The length of the tubes is about 2 cm. The color of the hymenophore is yellow, it happens with green or brown hues.
- Spores of different shades of brown - from olive to dark brown.
- Leg. The shape is cylindrical, thickened or narrowed below, depending on the type. The surface is smooth, wrinkled, ribbed, sometimes covered with a thin black mesh. The leg is always lighter than the hat. Diameter - from 0.5 cm to 2-4 cm.
The flywheel consists of a hat with a hymenophore and legs
The characteristic largely depends on the variety of the fungus, although they are all similar to each other. When pressed, the color of the pulp changes to blue. The tissue is damaged, as a result, a substance is released, which, upon contact with oxygen, acquires a blue tint. It protects the fetal body from further damage, does not affect its taste and safety.
Where does the moss fly
Flywheels are found in different regions of the world. They grow in North America, Europe and the European part of Russia, in Asia, Australia and North Africa. Each part of the world has its own species. More species grow in temperate latitudes. But there are those who love the subtropics. Green flywheel grows in alpine meadows and even in the subarctic zone.
Symbiosis is formed between mycelium and different types of moss. This mushroom also creates mycorrhiza with trees, both coniferous and deciduous. Prefers spruce, hornbeam, beech, pine, linden, chestnuts. It is found in forest glades or edges, old anthills, stumps and dead tree trunks. A parasitic flywheel grows on the body of another fungus - a puddle.
Mushrooms grow one by one, groups are rarely formed. The most favorable soil is sandy. Harvest time begins in mid-May. Continues until mid-October. In productive years, a small basket is easily collected in a small area. Sometimes this group includes the Polish mushroom, but it belongs to a different genus.
Flywheels grow individually, groups rarely form
Edible species of mosswicks
Flywheel - a fungus often edible. In composition, it is inferior to white or boletus, but is also considered tasty and valuable. It is readily collected, added to soups, gravy and other dishes. For the winter they freeze or pickle. In dried form, the moss cans are rarely stored: they turn black after this type of treatment.
Green flywheel is one of the most common species growing in temperate and northern climates. Appearance varies, depending on age. The main symptoms:
- The hat has a diameter of 4-11 cm. In young specimens, it is semicircular, then it becomes convex and pillow-shaped. The surface is pubescent, velvety, covered in cracks in dry weather.
- The flesh of the cap is oily, has a white or cream color, after breaking it acquires a faint blue tint.
- The hymenophore in young mushrooms is sulphurous yellow, then acquires a green or olive hue, in old fruiting bodies it becomes brown. When pressed, it turns blue weakly. The tubules are wide (this is a distinctive feature of this particular type), the shape is faceted or angular. In young fungi, the hymenophore grows together with a pedicle, then a notch forms at the transition site.
- Spores are ellipsoidal or spindle-shaped, brown-olive hue.
- The leg has the shape of a cylinder tapered to the bottom. Height - 4-11 cm, diameter - up to 2 cm. The top layer is hard, inside the flesh resembles cotton wool.
The taste is pleasant, delicate, with fruity notes. The mushroom is suitable for any type of cooking, belongs to the second category. It is found in coniferous, deciduous and mixed forests, oak forests. The collection season in Russia is from May to October.
The flywheel blushing, or red, is a rare species. He is found in ravines, on the sidelines of old dirt roads. Key features:
- The hat has a diameter of 10-14 cm. At first it is convex, then it becomes outstretched, sometimes with dents and a raised edge. The surface in young specimens is velvety, in old ones - scaly, with cracks. Shades - red, wine red, burgundy, brown. Hence the name - “red moss flywheel”. The peel fits snugly on the pulp and is not removable.
- The tubular layer of the young fungus is golden yellow; an olive shade appears with age. When pressed, it turns blue-green. Near the legs, the tubes are denser than on the periphery.
- The pulp is dense, yellow (directly under the hat has a reddish tint), when cut becomes blue-green.
- The leg is cylindrical, up to 10 cm high, with a diameter of 10-15 mm. Closer to the hat, it is colored yellow, below is brown or pink, covered with scales. The pulp of the legs is dense and continuous.
Red flywheel is found in ravines, on the sidelines of old dirt roads
Red flywheel belongs to the fourth category. The mushrooms are delicious, suitable for any type of cooking. They are collected in late summer and early fall (in August and September). In appearance, this mushroom is slightly reminiscent of Polish, but has more pronounced red tones in the color of the cap and legs.
Mushroom mushroom fissured, or variegated, grows in any coniferous and deciduous forests. It is not found only in alpine regions and on peat soils.
- The hat has a diameter of up to 10 cm, its color is light brown, brown, olive or gray-brown, reddish in cracks. The edge is sometimes colored in purple. The surface is felt, with many cracks. The form is pillow-shaped, the upper skin is not removable.
- The inside of the cap is friable, light yellow, directly under the skin and near the leg reddish. The cut first turns blue and then turns red.
- The hymenophore of the young fungus is yellow, it turns green with age. Tubules are expanded, angular, descend to the leg. When pressed, the layer acquires a blue color.
- The leg tapers to the bottom, the average height is 3-5 cm, the maximum is 9 cm. Thickness is 10-15 mm, the color is light yellow, olive, and the bottom is red. If you press the pulp, it turns blue.
A flywheel mottled or fissured is collected from July to October. It is delicious, but old fruiting bodies deteriorate quickly. Suitable for frying, pickling, rarely dried.
A brown or chestnut flywheel is a widespread species that occurs in mixed forests (less commonly in conifers). It grows next to spruce, birch, beech. Range - the European part of Russia, Belarus, Poland, the north of Ukraine. In appearance, it slightly resembles the green appearance of a moss fly.
- The hat has a size of 6-10 cm. In youth, it is hemispherical, then straightens. Color is brown, brown-red, olive-brown. It gets dark during the rain. A white coating forms on it, which is able to switch to other types of mushrooms. In dry weather, the hat will crack.
- The pulp is white or cream in color, does not turn blue on the cut. In young specimens it is dense, in old it becomes spongy.
- Large pore gimenophore, tubule length about 10 mm. Color - light yellow, does not change when pressed. The consistency at the beginning of the life of the fruiting body is dense, then the tubular layer becomes soft.
- The leg is often bent, grows by 8-10 cm. Its diameter is 10-20 mm. The inner part is fibrous. Above the leg is covered with the remains of the mycelium. Color - yellow or olive, below - red-brown.
A chestnut real moss fly is collected from June to October. It has good taste, belongs to the third category. Suitable for frying, boiling, salting, pickling.
Powdered green mushroom mushroom grows mainly in the southern regions of Russia, the Caucasus, Ukraine, the Far East. Prefers pine forests. It is rare in the northern latitudes.
- The mushroom’s hat is as if powdered with fine powder (especially in youth), which is where the name “powdered” comes from. It is convex, with a curved edge. Color - brown, olive, tan, often uneven, with spots of different shades, because it is often said that this moss fly is motley. In rainy weather, the hat becomes sticky and slippery.
- The inside of the hat is dense, yellow, on the cut it acquires a bright blue color, blackens over time.
- The tubular layer is bright yellow (a hallmark), then it acquires a shade of olive and ocher. The pores are large, rounded-angular, spores olive-yellow. The gimenophore tightly fuses with the leg, partially passes to it.
- Leg 7-10 cm high, 10-20 mm thick, extended below. A mesh is not characteristic of it, in the middle part a dotted, reddish-brown coating is noticeable. The color of the legs is reddish-brown, with a brown tint; on the cut it turns blue.
The variety has common features with the Polish mushroom, oak. It is harvested from mid-summer to mid-autumn.
The velvet flywheel present grows in deciduous, coniferous and mixed forests. Mycelium forms a symbiosis with oak, beech, pine and spruce. Fruit bodies look like this:
- The hat is spherical at the beginning of the growing season, then becomes convex and spherical. The upper layer is velvety, without cracks, with time it becomes smooth. Rare cracks appear only on old fruiting bodies. The color of the hat is brown, purplish-brown, with time it fades, becomes pink.
- The pulp is white or with a slight yellow tint, it turns blue on the cut.
- Tubular layer with large yellow pores, spindle-shaped spores, olive shade.
- The leg has a length of 4-12 cm, diameter - 5-20 mm. Inside there are amyloid hyphae with thick walls, which is a hallmark of the species.
The mushroom picking time lasts from late August to mid-October. They are distinguished by good taste, suitable for any culinary processing.
The green mushroom, the marsh moss, is sometimes called sand or variegated oiler. It is found in Central and Northern Europe, in the European part of Russia, in Siberia, the Urals and the Caucasus. Prefers pine forests. Type characteristic:
- The hat first has the shape of a hemisphere, then becomes pillow-shaped. Its diameter is 5-14 cm. The surface of small fungi is smooth, crack in the middle of the growing season, becomes scaly, and again becomes smooth in mature fruiting bodies. The peel is difficult to separate. The color changes from gray-orange to brown-red, then turns into a bright ocher.
- The pulp is dense, light yellow, closer to the surface of the cap and legs becomes lemon.
- The tubules first grow to the pedicle, and then separate. Their length is 8-12 mm, the shade is yellow and olive yellow, when pressed, it turns blue. Spores are olive brown or yellow, ellipsoidal.
- Leg 3-9 cm thick (diameter - 2-3.5 cm), lemon shade (at the bottom of the red-brown).
The species prefers sandy soils; it is harvested from June to early November. Belongs to the third category, is well suited for marinating, has low taste.
Conventionally Edible Moss Boats
Conditionally edible include species that require special cooking before use. For example, they need to be boiled for a long time, draining water several times. This is due to bitterness or weak toxic properties.
Description of conditionally edible mossovics
The flywheel is semi-gold
Semi-golden - this is a rare type of fungus that is found in the Caucasus, the Far East, and some regions of Ukraine. Its signs:
- The hat is convex, in old age it becomes flat, has a light yellow or golden color.
- The tubular layer is slightly darker than the cap.
- Leg is of medium thickness, yellow or reddish.
To cook, you need to boil this mushroom 3-4 times, constantly draining the water. It is not suitable for drying. Semi-golden flywheel belongs to the fourth category, its taste is low.
The flywheel is parasitic, or parasitic, growing on the fruiting bodies of puddles. During the growing season, it destroys the bodies of these fungi, absorbs the nutrients obtained from them. In appearance, it resembles a green flywheel, but much smaller in size. His description:
- The hat is first hemispherical, then becomes flat, covered with a fluff on top, has a velvety surface. Color brown-yellow, diameter - up to 5 cm.
- The pulp is friable, without taste and smell.
- The hymenophore is first yellow, then olive brown. Tubules are short, fused with a pedicle, pores are wide and ribbed.
- Leg brown-yellow, thin, curved, tapering at the bottom. It has a brownish-yellow hue, covered with red spots.
This species is rare, grows in dry places, on sandy soils. It is collected in large groups, in places of growth of false raincoats. Some experts attribute it to false and consider it inedible due to poor taste and lack of mushroom smell.
Inedible Moss Boats
Inedible mossy boletus is a mushroom with low palatability. Some species are unhealthy. False moss fly (parasitic) is sometimes referred to as inedible. But the most striking representative of this group is woody.
The woody flywheel grows in North America and Europe; it is extremely rare in Russia. He throws his mycelium into old wood or sawdust. It occurs on old log cabins, near destroyed wooden houses, and even at sawmills.
Woody flywheel grows in North America and Europe
- The hat has the shape of a hemisphere, diameter - 2-8 cm. The surface is smooth, red-brown, the skin is not removed.
- The inside of the dam is yellowish, with no taste or smell.
- The tubular layer passes to the leg, the shade of it is red-brown or rusty-brown. The pores have a rounded or angular shape, their length is 5-10 mm. Spores are fusiform or ellipsoid, yellow-olive.
- The leg is thick, with a diameter of 10-27 mm, a height of 8-10 cm, often bends, cylindrical. The color is the same as the hat or 1-2 tones lighter.
In appearance, this species is somewhat reminiscent of semi-gold, but has a darker color with a pronounced brown tone.
There are other inedible representatives of false mossoviks that belong to other species. For example, the peppermint boletus belongs to the genus Chalciporus, and not Xerocomus. This flywheel is not toxic, but it is not used due to bitterness and pungent taste. In rare cases, it is added to food instead of pepper. His description:
- A hat with a diameter of 2-7 cm, the surface is smooth, the skin is not removable. The color is brown, tan, red-brown, more often - light.
- The flesh is yellow, friable, it turns red at the cut, which distinguishes these false mushrooms from the real ones.
- Gymenophore of yellow-brown or brown-brown hue, descends to the leg, pores have an irregular angular shape.
- Leg 3-8 cm long and 0.5-3 cm thick, often curved, its hue is the same as that of a hat or a little darker.
Hot pepper flywheel - a common species. It is found throughout Europe, in Siberia, the Urals and the Caucasus. He was even found on the island of Tasmania.
If in doubt whether an edible species is found, it is better not to collect it. Mushroom pickers do not recommend taking a parasitic and even semi-golden appearance. It is better to collect green, velvet, colorful and other similar varieties. If there is no self-confidence, it is better to ask a more experienced person to show good mushrooms.