What doves need to eat, and what foods need to be vetoed
Each poultry breeder knows that health largely depends on the quality of nutrition and the correctness of the selected diet. And in sports pigeons, not only the state of health, but also success in competitions depends on the diet. Consider what can be eaten pigeons, and what to give the birds is strictly prohibited.
How to feed pigeons
We make a diet for birds
Pigeons, like people, need a balanced and varied diet. The basis of the diet is oats rich in various microelements, and pigeons from green fodder receive vitamins. As for the serving size, it depends on the size of the birds. Meat breeds, for example, are much larger than sports, respectively, they need more food.
The diet and serving weight varies depending on many factors. In winter and spring, birds, for example, are fed differently. Flyers who are preparing for competition also have a specific diet. Well, and, of course, during the feeding of poultry for meat special feeds are used. Let us consider in more detail how to organize meals at home, how the diet changes depending on the situation and what forms the basis of the diet in each case.
Allowed Products for Pigeons
Since the bird eats almost everything with pleasure, before compiling a ration for birds, you should find out how to feed pigeons, but not what. The list of allowed products includes:
- all cereals;
- granular food.
Consider each group of allowed products individually.
There are no restrictions on cereals. Feathered can safely be fed any grain. Grain crops should be alternated, which diversifies the diet of birds. In addition to cereals, birds give seeds. Be sure to have buckwheat in the diet, which cannot be replaced with anything. Feathered hemp is also spoiled. But as for wheat, which pigeons eat with great pleasure, it should not be abused. Excessive use of wheat in birds leads to obesity, which negatively affects the state of health and flying qualities.
Legumes are a treat for pigeons, but this is quite heavy food, so you need to give it infrequently. On hot days, it is better to remove legumes from the diet altogether.
Sometimes the grain is partially replaced by stones, which act as a mineral supplement for birds. But not any stones are suitable, but mineral ones, which can be purchased in specialized stores. Before giving pigeons stones, crush them. You can also give feathered crushed red bricks.
Granulated feed for pigeons, which also need to be included in the diet of birds, are sold in specialized stores. No matter how you try to pick up food products, they will not contain all the necessary vitamins and minerals. Granular feed will make up for the deficiency of certain trace elements in the body of the bird.
Amount of food consumed
It is very important not only what doves eat, but how much. Each poultry breeder, focusing on the behavior and state of birds, selects the optimal dose of feed on their own. But there are general points to be aware of.
When choosing crops, preference is given to barley. It should account for 40% of the daily norm of grain crops. According to the norms, a pigeon consumes from 30 to 50 g of feed per day. But do not feed the birds with one grain. This amount includes green feed, which can be grown independently at home. Periodically replace barley with pearl barley. Also included in the diet is millet. But this grain should account for no more than 10% of the daily norm of grain crops. About 30% should be in wheat. The remaining 20% are seeds, peas, flax, rapeseed, sorghum.
During molting, the diet changes slightly. During this period, you need to strengthen nutrition. This is due to the fact that for the formation of new feathers, the body needs more nutrients than usual. This is especially true for protein. During this period, it is advisable to increase the amount of barley and oats in the diet. But the amount of wheat consumed should be reduced. Necessarily feed pigeons seeds of rape, and as a green feed give feathered cabbage, or rather, its leaves. During this period, the pigeon eats more than usual. The daily norm during molting increases by 10-15 g.
Diet in winter time
Feeding pigeons as well as in summer is not possible. This is due to the fact that it is extremely difficult to get green food in the winter, and in some months it is generally impossible. Have to look for an alternative. It is also worth taking into account the fact that in winter the birds are preparing for breeding, which also leads to a change in diet.
So, what do you need to feed the pigeons in the winter? First of all, high protein foods are minimized. This must be done in order to reduce the sexual activity of birds. Pigeons hatched in winter have little chance of survival. Records for the content of protein legumes. Accordingly, they are excluded from the diet. The place of legumes in the diet is replaced by barley and oats. Also in winter, potatoes previously boiled in salt water are added.
We should also make a reservation about feeding carrier pigeons. Their diet should be more nutritious than the diet of other feathered types. The basis of the diet of the carrier pigeon in the winter is a grain mixture that can be made at home. To do this, take 4 kg of oats and barley and 1 kg of lentils and pre-chopped corn. By changing the number of components, a proportional relationship is maintained. Birds need to give this mixture at the rate of 35 g per adult.
To plumage in the winter time was soft, rape and flax, or rather, the seeds of these plants are added to the diet of birds. The rate of flax and rapeseed per day is 4 g.
Food for pigeons during this period should be more nutritious than in winter. This is due to the fact that in spring and early summer pigeons are engaged in feeding pigeons. Also, during this period, birds spend much more time in the air, which takes a lot of energy and effort, and sporting pigeons begin training and competitions.
Feeding pigeons during this period involves the use of foods high in protein. Also, a large amount of vitamins must be ingested. In addition to the fact that there must be a lot of protein and vitamins in the feed, they must be nutritious, otherwise the pigeons will not be able to feed young growth as it should, and this will have a negative impact on the health status of the pigeons. And in order for the young to form a strong skeleton, vitamin complexes and top dressing are additionally included in the diet.
The basis of the diet during this period is a mixture of vetch, peas, wheat, corn, millet, barley and oats. As for the percentage, barley, millet and peas are taken in equal parts. Their total mass in the finished mixture should be 60%. The remaining ingredients are also taken in equal amounts. But they account for 40%. During this period, the daily feed rate for an adult is an average of 50 g.
In addition to the grain mixture, the birds give young greens. In this case, there are no restrictions, but you need to collect grass away from the roadway. There, the plants are filled with toxins. The use of such plants can lead to eating disorders in pigeons.
Diet for "athletes"
Feeding pigeons participating in the competition is significantly different from feeding in any other period.
During long flights, birds spend a lot of energy, which they need to replenish upon returning home, so feeding sports pigeons at home implies the presence of foods rich in carbohydrates on the menu. Many carbohydrates are found in barley, corn, rice and wheat. So that during sports, the bird shows the maximum result, it is pampered with sugar. After completing sports, the pigeon needs to be given oilseeds (rapeseed, for example).
The cereal mixture for pigeons participating in the competition should consist of peas for 35%, barley for 20%, vetch, corn, oat and millet for 40%, and wheat for 5%. Pigeon eats less in winter than in summer. The daily consumption rate of the mixture, which can be prepared at home, is 45 g.
Separately, you need to consider feeding the pigeons during transportation, because decorative ones, for example, pigeons sometimes spend a long period of time on the road. Care must be taken to ensure that the birds feel as comfortable as possible at this time.
When transporting pigeons should be given those foods that do not cause thirst. Accordingly, exclude legumes, after which you feel thirsty. If you neglect this advice, then the pigeon during the competition, in order to quench his thirst, can sit by the pond, and stops for athletes are very expensive.
During transportation, as well as the day before it, the birds are fed with a mixture consisting of 50% of wheat, 30% of wiki and 20% of corn.
Feeding during the tribal period
Feeding domestic pigeons during the breeding period requires considerable costs, since birds need vitamins, especially B groups. During this period, females form eggs, and accordingly, the body spends a lot of effort on this process. With an insufficient amount of trace elements and vitamins in the body of a dove, the eggs will have low incubation qualities, which will negatively affect the hatchability of the chicks.
In addition to the feed mixture, which is prepared from cereals and legumes, pigeons are given green food and top dressing containing minerals. It is advisable to give doves vitamin complexes. Especially during this period, birds need vitamins A, D and B2. With a lack of at least one of them, the egg production of a dove decreases. And the laid eggs will have a thin shell, and the embryo may not be viable.
It is very important that the pigeon receives all the necessary trace elements, especially during the breeding season. If you notice that the bird is looking for pebbles, eating clay or chalk, it means that there is a lack of certain nutrients in the body. Accordingly, you need to give wards mineral baits, which are sold in specialized stores, where a specialist will help you choose the right lure.
We figured out how to feed the pigeons. Not a single pigeon breeder advises giving domestic pigeons bread. Accordingly, for street pigeons, such food is not healthy. But more often than not, in parks, people give feast to feathered bakery products. As a result, due to the carelessness of people, the life expectancy of birds is reduced by almost 3 times. It is better to pamper wild pigeons with millet - this is the favorite food of birds. If millet is not at hand, then you can grab any cereal with you. You can feed wild pigeons with rice or buckwheat, which is in every house. Reduces the life span of street pigeons and improper diet.
Sometimes the dove refuses to feed the chick (especially dove gulls sin with this), and the question arises of how to feed the dove. If the parents refused to feed the newborn chick, then the chances of his survival are minimal. This is due to the fact that at first the dove gives goats milk to the young. At present, no mixture has been invented that would be similar in composition to this product. The value of goiter milk is that it is rich in bacteria necessary for normal digestion. Really feed the dovecot, which parents left at a weekly age.
How to feed a little blueberry depends on age. A weekly chick is given a boiled and pre-chopped egg. As they grow older, a blueberry is introduced into the diet of a grain mixture. It is prepared from the same crops that are used to feed pigeons. Since a growing body needs a lot of energy, it is very important that the feed be nutritious.
In addition to grain, beans, lentils, sesame seeds, flax and rapeseed, oats (peeled), and unpolished rice are included in the diet. White rice is not recommended for birds.
You can give pigeons food intended for feeding parrots. But before buying such food, you need to familiarize yourself with the composition and stop the choice on feed without oats. If, nevertheless, oats are present, you must first clean it from the husk. You cannot feed the chicks with bread.
Beginner breeders often have questions about whether it is possible to feed domestic pigeons at different times of the day and whether the feeding regimen changes with changing daylight hours.
Feathers need to be fed at a strictly defined time. In summer, feeding is carried out 3 times a day, in winter - 2. Start feeding the poultry with 3 meals a day in the early morning, especially if they have offspring. The first feeding should occur from 4 to 5 in the morning. The second meal falls at 13.00. Feathered supper from 19 to 20.
In winter, birds begin and finish feeding later. This is due to the fact that the street is darker early and the sun rises late. The first meal takes place from 8 to 9 in the morning, the second - around 16 pm.
You can give food to birds both in the dovecote and on the street. Do not forget to observe the drinking regimen. Feathered drink ordinary water.
Products that can not be given to pigeons
If the pigeon stopped eating, it is quite possible that the diet was not drawn up correctly, which led to problems with the digestive tract.
It is strictly forbidden to feed feathered black bread: this leads to disruption of the digestive system, and white bread is not recommended to feed birds. You also can not feed pigeons meat. The body of birds is designed so that they simply are not able to digest meat, like all other products of animal origin. Taboo is applied to dairy products.
All of the above prohibitions apply to street pigeons.
The digestive system of birds and humans is structured differently. This must be taken into account when drawing up the diet. Despite the fact that the bird eats almost everything, the products need to be selected carefully. If you have doubts about whether it is possible to feed domestic pigeons with a particular product, you should consult an experienced pigeon breeder. During the breeding season, they enhance nutrition, in winter they remove high-calorie foods. As for city birds, you need to feed them with grain, and not with bakery products. As a last resort, opt for white buns. If we talk about seeds, then their overabundance can harm birds. Subject to the rules of feeding, a pigeon lives up to 20 years.