What are the unusual facts about mushrooms
The existence of mushrooms and their distribution around the globe is one of the mysterious phenomena. These organisms are not fully understood by scientists. Discoveries in this area and interesting facts about mushrooms do not cease to amaze.
Unusual mushroom facts
About 2 million species of mushrooms grow in nature.
There is a classification for only about 100, 000 species. By definition, these are special organisms, inhabitants of both forest and other types of biocenoses, which do not belong to the plant or animal world. Scientists have identified them in a separate kingdom of Mushrooms, which is divided into classes, orders, families, genera and species.
Fruit bodies look different, but have about 90% water in their composition.
Fiber, which is found in all types of forest organisms, makes them look like animal meat. Therefore, sometimes mushrooms are called "forest meat."
Many facts and interesting properties have been recorded for a long time.
In scientific circles, they are considered the largest organisms that have ever lived on Earth. They are more than an elephant or an ancient dinosaur. And this is not an exaggeration. After all, the visible upper part is just a small drop from the whole, which is hidden underground. In North American mycelium, sizes reach tens of kilometers and weigh about 100 tons.
A huge mycelium was found in Oregon, with a weight of over 200 tons and an area of 900 hectares.
There are many unusual and interesting facts about mushrooms. The most famous include:
- ability to grow quickly;
- a huge amount of controversy;
- incredible size and weight;
- deadly force;
- ability to glow, etc.
These interesting living organisms survived dinosaurs, the ice age and other cataclysms occurring throughout the history of life on Earth. It is not surprising if they survive humanity at the expense of their qualities.
Unusual properties of cep
"King of the Forest" - a white mushroom, is the largest in his kingdom. Its weight can reach 3.5 kg. The pulp remains completely white even when dried.
Amazing mushrooms of this species were found in Egypt, together with its cave painting, indicating that the ancient Egyptians enjoyed this product and, like us, considered it a delicacy.
There are several such facts about mushrooms, indicating their incredible adaptability and vitality:
- the number of disputes up to 7, 000, 000, 000, 000 pieces;
- survive at an altitude of more than 35 thousand meters above the Earth;
- have aerodynamic capabilities;
- variety of species.
Mushrooms themselves raise spores 10 cm from the ground with complete calm. This movement is created by the body itself. Water, evaporating from the body, cools his hat, the air around it drops and a turbulence is obtained, which raises the spores at the edges of the hat.
Some mushrooms survive in sulfuric acid
Any hostess who at least once fought at home with mold will prove the vitality of the fungus. It is extremely difficult to remove it, even with powerful chemicals. Cases were discovered when fungi survived in sulfuric acid.
Giant Langermania is a direct relative of the raincoat and forms up to 7, 000, 000, 000, 000 spores. If all disputes gave birth, the Earth would perish under their weight. Their mass would be 800 times the mass of the earthly macaw.
With an acceleration of 20, 000g, the spore of the pilobotus flies out. For humans, an effort of 10 g is deadly. When a space rocket takes off, astronauts experience a load of 3 g.
The fact of the physical strength of the body
During its intensive growth, the body's strength reaches 7 atmospheres.
This pressure in the tires of a dump truck with a draft of 10 tons. This fact of the power of mushrooms was recorded at the beginning of the 20th century. The hat pierces not only asphalt, but also iron or marble. The desire to survive wins in any conditions.
Several facts about the bloodthirstiness of mushrooms are striking in their realism. These organisms are able not only to feed on worms, but also to set traps on them, to attract them to themselves.
A sticky substance is produced on their surface. Its smell attracts insects or worms. As soon as the touch occurs, the trap is triggered, and the threads of the mycelium entangle the victim tightly.
Spores can penetrate into a human or other living organism. You can simply inhale them. After which a person will fall ill, and a smaller creature will simply die. Mushrooms will continue to develop even inside a dead creature.
Facts about the glow in the dark
You can notice an amazing luminous clearing in the dark forest. So the mycelium of some species phosphoresces.
Irina Selyutina (Biologist):
Some species of honey mushrooms, in particular autumn mushrooms, are capable of glowing in the dark. The phenomenon of the natural glow of organisms is called bioluminescence. Aristotle and Pliny the Elder knew about this ability of mushrooms, who called it “cold fire”. In 1823, they were able to establish a connection between the glow of wood and the mycelium actively growing in it. Sometimes only the substrate in which the fungus grows can glow, as in the honey agaric. However, there are species in which the fruit bodies themselves emit a glow. It is believed that all honey mushrooms belonging to the genus Armillia and some species from the Mycenae family, in which both mycelium and fruiting bodies glow, are capable of bioluminescence.
On a rotten stump ordinary mushrooms can give a glow. The spectacle is admirable. You can go to the forest late in the evening and return with a full basket of delicious mushrooms.
Many forest organisms have legs on which their upper parts of the fruit body - the caps - are located. They can’t move on the ground.
But there is an amazing organism. Its name is Slime. This relative of fungi is capable of active movement. Although he moves extremely slowly, he is still “walking.” This "sprinter" any snail in the race will win.
The description of the mucus is completely unlike other species of its cousins, mushrooms. Its vegetative body is a mass of plasma with many nuclei and not having a dense shell. Such bodies are called plasmodia.
Irina Selyutina (Biologist):
In the direction of movement, plasmodium outgrowths form on the surface of the cell, resembling pseudopods (pseudopodia) of protozoa and the total volume of the cytoplasm is large at the front end in the direction of movement of the plasmodium. This polarity is associated with the concentration of potassium at the anterior end of the migrating plasmodium. Measuring the speed of this creature showed that it is 0.1-0.4 mm per minute.
Interestingly, under adverse conditions, plasmodium turns into sclerotia - a thickened, hardening mass. There is a known case when the fullerous sclerotia of the mucus lain in the herbarium for 20 years.
If you look at the body of the mucus under a microscope, it is noticeable how the protoplasm moves, shimmers and glows inside. Having reached the surface of the tree, plasmodium begins to multiply and ejects many processes from the body, is converted into sporulation organs, from which new organisms are born.
The fact about the healing properties of mushrooms has been proven by doctors. Their chemical composition is not fully understood, but the acquired knowledge proves that the presence of amino acids, vitamins, trace elements can be used with benefit for a person, to strengthen his immune system and to fight many diseases.
As early as 1940, an antibiotic penicillin was isolated from molds of the genus Penicillus. After that, hundreds of soldiers were saved from imminent death from sepsis. The antibiotic has firmly entered human life thanks to the healing properties of these ancient organisms.
Fungi are also used in the manufacture of cheese:
- Some yeast in the course of their life synthesize esters that can give the cheese different flavors.
- Some special types of mold (noble mold) from the Penicillus genus are used to make blue cheeses.
The nutritional value of this product is due to its high protein content. There are practically no carbohydrates in them. Low cholesterol and saturated fat. With proper nutrition, there is no better substitute for animal or poultry meat.
They have a lot of selenium, calcium, B2, D, and antioxidants. Therefore, it is good to periodically diversify the menu with dishes, with the addition of forest organisms.
There are a lot of unusual mushrooms on the planet. Some of them resemble marine “relatives”. Others are nothing like space aliens at all. Their life expectancy and size inspire respect. Pipers grow on trees up to 85 years old and reach 600 kg. In China, a specimen of this species was found that grew in length by 11 m. Therefore, the unusual amazing properties of organisms are suggestive. It will be many years before scientists can solve the mystery of the appearance and life of these creatures on our home planet.