What are mushroom gifs
Mushroom gypses are thin strings of which the fungus organism consists. Mycelial hyphae are located underground. These processes provide the body with communication with the external environment.
In mushrooms there is a combination of signs of animals and plants. The following features are related to the plant world:
- expressively represented by the cell wall;
- attached way of life;
- unlimited growth;
- reproduce by spores;
- can synthesize vitamins;
- the presence of vacuoles;
- absorptive diet.
Such signs are similar to animals:
- the presence of chitin;
- the absence of all types of plastids, including photosynthetic ones;
- accumulate glycogen;
- the product of metabolism is urea.
Due to this specific structure and functioning, they are ranked as the oldest species of eukaryotes. But they have no evolutionary connection with plants. Today, more than 100, 000 species of these representatives of the wildlife of our planet have been studied. True, scientists believe that the real figure is much higher and can reach 250, 000 or even 1.5 million.
The hat and leg are the fruit body. And the “working” part - mycelium or mycelium - is located inside wood, soil or substrate. The fruiting body does not live long, about 10-15 days. The mushroom picker can live even hundreds of years. It is resistant to low temperatures and drought.
Under adverse conditions, the mycelium stops its development. Under suitable conditions, the mycelium “wakes up” and continues to grow, but it may not form fruiting bodies. The mycelium consists of thin interwoven threads - hyphae.
What are gifs
Fungus gyphus is a typical morphological structural unit of a given organism.
This is a tube in the shape of a cylinder (5 to 10 microns in diameter). There are species in which hyphae grow to 170 microns. Inside the shell of thin filaments is a multinucleated plasma, it forms new cells at the tip.
Irina Selyutina (Biologist):
Gifs are able to combine into:
- rhizomorphs: more or less loose strands (several meters long, several millimeters thick);
- sclerotia: dense plexuses from which the fruiting organs are formed.
The entire set of fungal hyphae is mycelium (mycelium). That part of it, which is located in the soil and, accordingly, is hidden from the eyes of a person, is called the “vegetative body". The part located above the surface of the soil and intended for sporulation, in cap mushrooms, we call the “fruit body”. Groups of hyphae, which are tightly intertwined in the fruiting bodies, form a plectenchyma or false tissue, or pseudoparenchyma. In appearance, plectenchyma resembles the main plant tissue - the parenchyma, but it is formed not by three-dimensionally dividing cells, but simply by close hyphae. The hyphal layer covering the hat contains pigments that give it a specific color.
Mushrooms are constantly growing in length, at the end of the thread begin to branch, and protoplasm is continuously advancing to the young part of the thread. Aged areas can be separated by the wall, which appears due to the ingrowth of the hyphal sheath.
Gifs absorb nutrients
Mushroom hyphae are colorless. Sometimes the processes become yellowish or brown.
Depending on the presence of partitions, the threads can be divided into groups:
- Aseptic: hyphae without diametrical walls, i.e. non-cellular. Inherent in lower mushrooms.
- Septic: they have partitions (in the center of which holes are preserved) that create individual cells, therefore they are also called multicellular. All higher: hat, part of the mold and others have this kind of hyphae.
Mushroom gypses have the main task - absorption, transmission of nutrients and reproduction.
The absorption of water and food is the main function of hyphae.
There are threads that are modified in the haustoria, hunting loops and more. By the nature of the nutrition, all mushrooms are heterotrophs, however, according to the type of nutrition, they are divided into:
- Saprotrophs: most mold, cap mushrooms and yeast. The specificity is that the body is able to create a mycelium from hyphae longer than a kilometer long. Thanks to this, the body communicates tightly with the environment.
- Parasites: feed on other living organisms.
- Symbionts (symbiotrophs): enter into mutually beneficial relationships with representatives of other species of living organisms, forming mycorrhiza.
- Predatory mushrooms: capable of eating some animal organisms, but able to live like saprotrophs.
Irina Selyutina (Biologist):
Currently, most mycologists are inclined to believe that the saprotrophic type of nutrition of fungi is primary, but parasitism is secondary, which arose in the process of evolution as a result of adaptation to life in new, often unfavorable conditions when competing for habitats. Now more than 10, 000 species of parasite fungi are known that can live on a variety of plants and animals, other fungi and lichens. Therefore, they are very diverse both in lifestyle and in nutrition. Some species are narrowly adapted and feed on only one type of host organism. Others, on the contrary, are able to use for their purposes a number of types of owners belonging not only to different families, but even to other kingdoms of wildlife.
Almost every cell of the mycelium is separated from the environment by a thin cell septum. Digestive enzymes affect the nutrient medium and contribute to its digestion outside the cell. Further, the thus prepared product is already absorbed by the whole cell.
Mushrooms can breed in three ways:
- Asexual: reproduction passes through endogenous and exogenous spores. Endogenous are formed inside sporangia. And exogenous spores develop on the processes of the mycelium - conidiophores. When the dispute is in a suitable environment - it wakes up, grows and the mycelium appears.
- Sexual: this type of reproduction is characterized by its diversity. Individual species of organisms multiply by combining the interiors of two cells located at the tips of hyphae.
- Vegetative: carried out by several types:
- when separated from the bulk of the mycelium of its parts capable of independent development;
- arthrospores (oidia), which are formed during the decomposition of hyphae into individual short cells, each of which gives rise to a new organism;
- chlamydospores: they have a thick dark-colored shell, are able to tolerate adverse conditions, then sprouting most often with mycelium;
- by budding: whole mycelium or single cells.
Hyphae in fungi grow at different rates. It depends on the nutrient medium, the characteristics of the body, external factors and much more. The growth rate of the fungal colony depends on the growth rate.
Sometimes mushroom gifs change. Some change their appearance due to adaptation to the performance of certain functions. So, there is a mushroom, which consists of hyphae in the form of an arc. Thanks to them, the body expands the boundaries of its population. And a large number of parasitic fungi form apressoria. They mushroom can attach to different surfaces. Hyphae also enter into relationships with higher plants or algae.