What are the diseases in cows and bulls?
When breeding cattle, farmers may experience some difficulties. The most common question among all breeders is what kind of disease can be in cows and bulls? Indeed, a lot of different problems can be observed in animals, most often arising from improper care and breeding. Diseases and treatment of cows should not be ignored, since any ailment in animals requires the intervention of a veterinarian. It is necessary, if possible, to understand how to determine the disease at the initial stage of development, how to treat and carry out prevention.
Diseases of cows and bulls
Cow diseases most often occur due to the occurrence of infectious microbes, viruses or parasites. In this case, you need to have separate pens in the room where you can quarantine diseased individuals. If you keep sick and healthy cows and bulls together, then with a viral infection, the entire population can cover one disease. Among the most insidious ailments, radiation sickness, various inflammations of the udder, mastitis, rabies, rashes such as smallpox, heme are distinguished.
Non-communicable diseases are not so insidious, but they can knock down the whole herd. Such diseases include postpartum problems arising from poor maintenance or inadequate monitoring of animals, as well as problems with milk production, and a stone disease.
Causes of disease in cattle
- Inadequate living and housing conditions. In colder climates and in unheated rooms, cows may get an udder, especially during lactation.
- Damp and dirty flooring can provoke the appearance of peculiar lichen and inflammation.
- Poor ventilation of the room creates a favorable environment for the development of any disease, especially viral.
- Poor, poor diet leads to major problems with digestion and vitamin deficiency.
- Under inappropriate conditions, cows and bulls can pick up almost any disease. Most often these are colds with fever.
Foot and mouth disease in bulls and cows
Infectious infections and fungal diseases of cows and bulls can be dangerous not only for animals, as they spread throughout the herd, but also for humans. Infectious diseases in cows often occur, and the most dangerous is foot and mouth disease. Such a disease begins with the fact that only 1 or 2 cows become infected, then the disease can spread to the whole herd. Foot and mouth disease from a bull or a cow can be picked up by a person, moreover, he willingly infects children, therefore, when working with a sick individual, maximum caution should be exercised. The main signs of the occurrence of foot and mouth disease are a decrease in milk yield, a decrease in the appetite of a cow, and an increase in body temperature of the animal.
Further, gritting of teeth, salivation, and in some cases, cracking of the nipples may appear. It is worth paying attention to where to start treatment: first of all, you need to invite a veterinarian, since foot and mouth disease is a complex disease and you should not treat it yourself. In the early stages of development, foot and mouth disease is successfully treated with antibiotics. The main thing is to notice the symptoms in time and start treatment.
When inflammatory processes appear on the skin, many veterinarians prescribe treatment with disinfectants, for example, iodine, potassium permanganate, and a solution of acetic acid are popular for such purposes. If symptoms of the disease are observed in only one individual, it should be placed temporarily in a separate pen. If you keep sick and healthy individuals together, there is a risk of spreading the disease to the whole herd.
Smallpox in cows
Basically, this disease occurs in young cattle at the age of 6-8 months. Such an ailment is not uncommon. It is easiest to notice smallpox in young heifers after calving, as warts appear on the udder of the nipples. Such formations on the genitals lead to the fact that milk yield is significantly reduced, the fat content of milk becomes less. There should be no scabs, warts and inflammations on the genitals. Bulls have warts on their stomachs. Smallpox leads to the fact that the quality of milk begins to change. Animals themselves can refuse food and be passive.
The incubation period in smallpox lasts from about 4 to 8 days, after cows and bulls an increase in body temperature can be observed, roseols form on the skin over time, which develop into papules. Infectious growths in young animals, the so-called pustules, are different. It is possible to carry out treatment for smallpox at home. To do this, farmers first clean pustules with cotton soaked in collodion. Then you can grease the warts with boron or zinc ointment.
As a prophylaxis, it is recommended to put a smallpox vaccine. The peculiarity of the vaccine is that it protects against infection. This method is carried out in the form of injections and is prescribed by the veterinarian. To prevent the development of smallpox in the pen, it is worth paying attention to maintaining cleanliness in the room and animal hygiene. Home care should be appropriate and timely. How the growths in cattle with smallpox look like, you can look at the photo or video.
Diseases in cows include infectious brucellosis, which is developing rapidly and is considered very dangerous. A week after infection, cattle may experience a situation where the entire lymphatic system, as well as the gastrointestinal tract, is swollen. Signs of brucellosis can still be seen on the udder. In the third week after infection, if the disease is started and not treated, damage to the liver, spleen, all lymph nodes and even the eyes occurs. It is recommended to carefully monitor pregnant females, since brucellosis lesions mainly occur in this category of animals. Young animals rarely get sick with this disease. If a pregnant female caught brucellosis, then he can provoke a miscarriage.
Brucellosis is so insidious that even exposure to low temperatures in the animal room will not help get rid of it. The disease can occur in heated pens, and in cold ones. Such an ailment can occur in a latent form from one week to several months. The first noticeable symptoms of brucellosis are gynecological.
Gynecological processes occur in the uterus, develop pathology of the fetal membrane. A veterinarian with experience is needed to diagnose the disease. Brucellosis is diagnosed using bacteriological studies. So that pregnant females do not undergo such an ailment, a veterinarian should be invited for preventive examinations and for sampling at least 1 time within 3 months. As a prophylaxis, it is recommended to maintain optimal conditions for living and keeping cattle.
There are such symptoms that it is simply impossible not to notice, for this you need to know their description. There is nothing simpler than recognizing rabies in cattle. There are manifestations in animals immediately after infection, sometimes it may take some time. Rabies is manifested in cattle in the literal sense of the inappropriate behavior of animals. If cows get sick, they can throw themselves at people, do not eat normal food, chew rags or bedding, and behave inappropriately.
A certain part of the brain is affected, which disrupts its normal functioning. The animal may begin to salivate, become aggravated, or, conversely, a sense of fear disappears. Sources of infection with such an insidious disease are still unknown. There is no cure as such. To inspect the entire herd for rabies, you need to invite a veterinarian.
Non-communicable diseases of cows and bulls
Many farmers believe that non-communicable diseases are not so insidious and can be treated without rushing. This is actually not the case. Although diseases are not transmitted as an infection, infection can cause significant damage to the farmer. The disease affects the number of milk yields. Each farmer should know the description of such diseases at least briefly, so that with possible symptoms they should know how to treat their burenka and in what form to give certain medicines.
If you find any symptoms of the disease, you need to invite a veterinarian, since many diseases have similar symptoms and it is quite difficult for an inexperienced person to recognize the disease. Also, the veterinarian will take the necessary tests and, based on their results, will confirm or deny the presence of the disease.
A sign of pneumonia is primarily a cough for 4-12 weeks. Inflammation of the lung occurs in animals that live in inappropriate conditions. If the conditions of detention do not meet the requirements, the disease will spread - after some time it will be confirmed by another cow, and then another one.
If cattle has a cough, this symptom should not be missed. Of course, coughing does not mean that animals have pneumonia, but if you skip treatment of individuals at this stage, then the disease will soon go into the chronic phase.
In animals, an increase in body temperature up to 40 ° C and diarrhea can be observed. Only a veterinarian should treat pneumonia. Antibiotics are usually prescribed, but if you take the risk to give them yourself, this will be a big mistake. The fact is that even an effective medicine, chosen incorrectly for a particular cow, can only worsen the situation. The veterinarian prescribes antibiotics taking into account the characteristics of the disease and condition, the weight of the animal and the presence of related factors. Lung inflammation spreads most often in rooms where there is a damp and cold floor, wet and dirty litter, and there is a lack of normal air ventilation. Individuals deprived of daily walks and deficient in vitamin A are ill.
Hypodermatosis in cattle
The carriers of such a disease can be gadflies and ticks. Infection occurs in the summer, when the period of activity is observed in insects. They accumulate mainly in the place where the animal has thin skin, for example, in the area around the eyes or on the limbs. Eye places are the most favorite among parasites. Insects can bring not only hypodermatosis into the eye area, but also many other diseases.
Constant nibbling of ticks or gadfly near the eyes leads to the fact that dirt and infections are introduced into the wounds. Animal combing bitten places.
Prevention of the disease boils down to regularly inspecting livestock for bites and hanging ticks. If insects are found, they must be removed from cattle skin. Wounds and combed places should be treated with special tools. Many farmers carry out autumn special antiparasitic treatments.
Traumatic reticulitis and pericarditis
Another disease that causes problems in the gastrointestinal tract is reticulitis. If an individual swallows a foreign object, and this happens in corrals where conditions of detention are not met, then it may have the following symptoms: muscle weakness, especially if it is a calf only after calving, which drags everything it finds into its mouth, and its body temperature is lowered, pelvic limbs summed up under the stomach. There is no lactating function, the animal is passive. In this case, surgical intervention is necessary. Prevention should consist in cleaning pastures of objects that could harm livestock, especially metals and unnecessary things.
Pericarditis is considered a slightly different disease and occurs due to traumatic injury. With this disease, you need to support the work of the cardiovascular system. The head of the cow is kept steady, the animal doesn’t particularly move it unnecessarily, the gait is very smooth, cautious, without sudden movements. When urinating and defecating, the animal may make moans. Genital damage may occur. In the absence of appetite and proper nutrition, the metabolic function is impaired. The disease must be treated in the early stages, first of all, the work of the heart should be supported. For this, a solution of caffeine with glucose is used. If such treatment yields a positive result, iodide or diuretic substances can be used for further treatment.
Mastitis in cows
Mastitis is considered a disease that affects only females, most often after calving or during gestation. There are times when mastitis can affect females due to inappropriate conditions of detention, for example, if the room is cold, damp, and poor nutrition. If it became noticeable that the milk of Burenka has become somehow tasteless, has an unpleasant odor, or it contains clots or even pus, these are sure signs of mastitis. Prevention is to provide comfortable conditions for the baby and cows after calving.
First of all, after calving, a calf is let in so that the first colostrum goes to him. This is necessary for the female and the calf. Milking a cow should be done only with clean hands, before each milking it is necessary to wash your hands with antibacterial soap and wipe the udder with warm water. After calving, swelling may form on the udder.
If suspicious symptoms of mastitis are found, the burenka should be shown to the veterinarian. Mostly antibiotics are used to treat mastitis. During lactation, you can conduct a special massage of the udder so that the milk does not stagnate and the udder does not swell.
Atony of the pancreas
This disease occurs mainly in adults, both in cows and bulls. Atony of the pancreas is a lack of muscle tone of the pancreas. Such a disease appears due to stagnation of food or its indigestion. Symptoms of the disease are: lethargy, sometimes apathy, lack of appetite, in some cases a temperature of about 40 ° C, a noticeable decrease in milk yield. If you do not attach importance to such symptoms, the disease goes into the next phase and can provoke intestinal obstruction.
The reasons for the occurrence of such an ailment can be a lot, the most basic ones are feeding cattle with bad and low-quality feeds, feeding only with solid feeds, straw or bad hay. Eating rotten potatoes and moldy hay.
Changing the type of feeding, especially in the autumn, provokes a certain resonance in the animal. If cattle was grazed all summer and ate only fresh grass, and with the arrival of autumn they immediately began to feed it with concentrates, this could adversely affect the gastrointestinal tract of pets.
Infection with atony of the pancreas can occur due to poor-quality drinking water. You can only drink clean water at room temperature.
Treatment of such a disease should be comprehensive, only in this case can we count on success.
First of all, it is necessary to normalize the work of the pancreas, improve the microflora in the organs, and eliminate the process of decay and intoxication. Properly selected therapy improves cattle in the first few days. With the timely start of treatment, the full restoration of the work of the pre-stomachs occurs in 5-7 days.
If you follow all the basic rules for the care of cattle, timely prevent and vaccinate against common diseases, the livestock will always be active and healthy. Any disease of bulls and cows is curable, the main thing is not to miss the appearance of symptoms, otherwise veterinary medicine will be powerless. In general, the main rule: everything must be done on time.