Ways to grow potatoes
Root crops occupy an honorable first place in the human diet, therefore, domestic and foreign farmers cultivate a popular plant. However, without understanding the developmental features, it is difficult to get a plentiful harvest. How are potatoes grown? We will analyze the newest and most effective methods to increase the yield of the variety.
Ways to grow potatoes
To get record numbers, you do not have to order the original Egyptian hybrids. The technological map of cultivation and processing tells about important procedures that must be performed by farmers during sowing. Experienced farmers know that by following cultivation rules, common problems can be avoided. Conservative production methods have been around for many years, so they are simple and affordable.
Under the shovel
Potato cultivation in the “old-fashioned” way in specialized literature is called manual technology. The sequence is fixed for decades and rarely changes. On a previously dug out personal plot, even furrows are outlined or work is carried out on the cord. The distance between the holes should be at least 30 cm, and between the rows - 70. Narrow passages complicate the care of the crop.
According to the method, one person digs a hole with a shovel, the depth of which is half the bayonet. The next landowner lays in the soil a tuber, a handful of fertilizers (humus, compost or mineral fertilizing). Root crops are buried from the nearest hole. After all the seed has been used, the planting surface is leveled with a rake.
Growing potatoes on the site can be facilitated by modern devices. If you donned more than 1 hectare and there is no desire to tear your back with manual labor, then we recommend using a special apparatus - a planter or walk-behind tractor. A huge assortment of models allows you to choose a product for your financial capabilities.
First, deep soil loosening occurs. Variants of technology on gasoline allow manipulations to one operator, and mechanical specimens require the presence of two people. Germinated tubers are placed in furrows, with gaps from 30 to 40 cm. The finer the potatoes, the shorter the interval.
The trenches are buried with a cultivator or using a conventional rake. The distance between the rows should be at least 0.6 m. This distance allows the device to easily pass through the area with the crop without damaging the plants when weeding, hilling or loosening.
In the crests
Dutch technology for growing potatoes quickly took root among domestic farmers. The method is relevant for areas where groundwater is located nearby. Thanks to this method, the bulbs have enough oxygen and they do not rot.
“Clear cultivation rules are strictly followed: selection of the best planting material, crop rotation, fertilizing the soil, treating tops with herbicides against pests.”
A place under a large potato is plowed with a walk-behind tractor, after which nozzles are used for hilling. Between the ridges leave space up to 70 cm, and tubers are planted on the hills every 0.3 m, and then sprinkled with earth. It is necessary to ensure that the plantation does not dry out, and the beds do not crumble. As the plants develop, add soil from above and tie to a low trellis.
We sit in rows
When growing potatoes by seedlings, each farmer is looking for the most convenient and economical way. Our country has the best fertile lands, which makes the use of sowing technologies in hydroponics and aeroponics pointless. If you have any problem areas, you can try non-standard approaches.
Organic farming is now very popular, so many farmers prefer these technologies. There is an interesting way to grow potatoes that Kurdyumov developed. If you think through the rows correctly, then it is suitable for insufficiently fertile soils. Its feature is the creation of special carpentry structures, filled according to the scheme with layers of:
- plant residues;
Such a "site" is collected in long boxes, trenches or boxes, on sand or virgin soil, covered with cardboard. The filling warms the planting and creates a natural microclimate, as in a greenhouse or under a film. If there is such a bed, then it is possible to get intensive returns in any climatic conditions. The culture is not affected by potato diseases, which improves overall performance.
By the method of Nekrasov in the southern regions, it will be possible to collect tubers twice in one season. According to technology, greened and pickled seed material is planted in the ground in winter (mid or late February) to a depth of at least 10 cm, and covered with a thick layer of mulch on top. The first early harvest is in May, and the last in September.
How to grow potatoes? Propagation by cuttings of stolons in two sprouts implies cultivation in wide rows - from 60 to 90 cm. Pieces are laid out in furrows, a handful of ash with humus must be poured over each. For the entire period they do one hilling.
Potato cultivation according to the method of Mikhailov is classified as natural farming. The garden is marked, at the intersections they dig holes, where they put the overripe manure and tubers, they crush the soil from above. After the appearance of the tops, some of the greens are left in an upright position, and the rest are laid out in the form of rays. Plant spud, add soil.
During the season, a “multi-layer” strong bush grows in the pits of the season. According to technology, up to 19 kg of an early harvest can be obtained from one instance. The method is common not only among domestic farmers, but is also borrowed by Koreans and Chinese.
According to Gulikh
Each plant needs a sufficient amount of nutrition for development. The planting site is divided into squares - 1 * 1 m, in the center of each segment put a roller with manure mixed with soil and sawdust. Big potatoes are planted in a pile with the top down, sprinkling with sandy soil from above. As soon as leaves form on the shoots, the soil is again sprinkled. The result is a multi-tiered bush, where the main part is hidden between the layers.
Such beds do not need to spud, so the care is minimal. For development, abundant watering and regular feeding during the season will be required. According to the Gulikh method, in the fall it is possible to collect more than 15 kg of root crops from each plant with high storage rates.
We choose methods of cultivation
Not always the size or fertility of the plot allows you to engage in agriculture. The technology of growing potatoes outside the open ground is a novelty in Russia. Proven techniques are quickly picked up by enterprising farmers, changing to meet domestic needs.
In the tower
Cultivating plants in stationary containers or mesh constructions is not a novelty, but has not yet been used for root crops. The method is suitable for use in a small suburban area. Alternative farming does not require pre-treatment of the place: it is enough to tear out weeds and level the soil under the structure.
The description of the “in the tower” method indicates that it is necessary to make a not very high structure (no more than 1.5 m), the bottom of which is filled with earth and straw. Tubers are laid on top, after which the grass layer alternates with the soil. By the way, some craftsmen grew potatoes in the same hay with the addition of peels. As the greenery grows, the shoots are covered with a layer of soil. By the end of the season, with one design, it is possible to obtain from 4 to 10 kg of root crops with good shelf life.
Methods of growing potatoes in Europe and Egypt allow the use of hydroponic equipment. Our craftsmen do not pursue operational scientific technologies, so at home they fill plastic bags with a fertile mixture with sawdust, earth and humus, make diamond-shaped holes on the surface. Such curbstones can stand not only in a garden, but also in any sunny place of a summer residence.
The bag is stuffed one third with soil, after which the seed is planted. The soil is added as the tops grow, gradually filling the entire capacity. Cultivation by this method eliminates hilling and weeding. Despite all its simplicity, the method allows you to get a plentiful harvest.
By the way, growing potatoes using this technology is possible not only in bags, but also in a large pot, large bag or bucket. Carried away by vertical farming, it is possible to achieve maximum returns on conventional varieties. Minimum physical and monetary costs are paid back by healthy products with an abundance of starch and normal shelf life.
Among non-traditional methods of cultivation, it is worth noting the cultivation technology in tires. If there is an old automobile “shoe”, then digging five potatoes in such a bed, you can get at least three buckets at the exit in the fall. As the tops grow, a new layer of rubber is laid on top and the soil is filled up.
The bush stretches up, forming additional tubers on the roots. In tires, the earth quickly warms up, so they cover it with a film or agrofiber from moisture evaporation. Frequent watering and regular dressing will provide the plant with nutrients.
Whatever method you choose, but growing your potatoes without proper attention will fail. Both the scientific method of Alexander Stadnik and the “folk” Oleg Telepov make agrarians adapt to the needs of the plant. You may not know what OKVED or EM preparations are, but in order to take off a rich harvest of early and medium grades, it is necessary to create optimal conditions.
The intensity of the main irrigation depends on the condition of the soil, weather and climate characteristics. In the warm southern regions without abundant moisture, it is difficult to achieve maximum yield of plants. Wet seasons of the northern regions can cause root crops to rot at the flowering stage. There are three important phases when water is needed:
- after emergence of shoots;
- when the buds will appear;
- after dropping the petals.
Potatoes, the care and cultivation of which are minimal, will show the need for irrigation - the tops lose their elasticity and begin to wither. It is important that the liquid penetrates deep into the ground by 50 cm. In the greenhouse and in the open ground, at least 50 liters per 1 m2 will be needed. If you have equipment, it is better to hold the event by sprinkling in the morning or in the evening.
The effectiveness of the organic or industrial process depends on many procedures. Wherever they plant and no matter how hard they make, but without loosening and removing weeds, the roots are deficient in oxygen and nutrients, which is why indicators are worsening. Hilling helps minimize maintenance, while protecting the culture from both heat and frost.
As soon as the first shoots break through, it is necessary to fill up with fluffy soil. It turns out small hills (10-15 cm), from which a "bouquet" grows. Repeated operation is carried out after three weeks. By the way, vertical methods of growing potatoes eliminate this procedure.
To get a plentiful crop, it is important to fertilize correctly. It should be remembered that excess or lack of nutrients negatively affects fertility. The abundance of organic matter and mineral preparations in the second half of summer enhances the growth of tops to the detriment of tubers, and deficiency will cause small-scale production.
The first feeding is made a month after planting, using nitrogen-containing substances. The second procedure is needed during the flowering period, and the third - during the formation of the fruit. Three weeks before harvesting, it is necessary to stop watering with fertilizers, otherwise chemicals that are harmful to health and reduce the shelf life of the storages accumulate in the tubers.
If you know the requirements of plants, then growing potatoes will not be a problem. Unusual methods of processing and cultivation will allow you to get the most out of the production of root crops. The recommendations have collected many advanced farming secrets.