Ways to deal with apple moths
Apple moth (or apple) is a small insect from the family of moliform Lepidoptera ermines. This is a dangerous pest of the apple tree. Distributed in European countries, including the Siberian part of Russia.
Ways to deal with apple moths
Biological Description of Varieties
- Leafworm, or apple ognevka - a small white-silver moth, wingspan no more than 2 cm. Caterpillars 1.2-1.3 mm long, painted yellow-green with shiny dots, head light brown.
- The motley is silver - the wingspan is up to 1.2-1.3 cm. There are silver specks on the wings and a long silver fringe. Caterpillars up to 0.5 cm long, green color.
- The dominant apple-tree speckled moth is its wingspan of not more than 0.8-0.9 cm. There is a silver fringe on narrow wings. Caterpillars are yellow-green, very small. The name was given due to the ability to lay winding passages in the gnawed foliage - “mines”.
- Pocket mining - the wingspan is up to 1.2 cm. The front wings are narrow, covered with light hatching. Caterpillars are yellow-green. I form mines about 1.0 cm long and 0.5 cm wide.
- Apple-tree baby is a miniature variety, the wingspan of thin wings is up to 0.5 cm. Caterpillars are yellow-white flat.
- Hawthorn circle - a small butterfly with narrow wings covered with long fringe. Forms mines in the form of dark rounded fragments of small diameter
- Rowan - a small butterfly, the wingspan reaches 1-1.3 cm. The front wings are chestnut with silver spots.
- Apple ermine moth is very small, the wingspan is up to 2.5 cm, the front wings are covered with black dots, and the rear wings are painted silver. Caterpillars are painted in yellow-white or dark gray shade, length up to 1.7-1.8 cm.
What is the danger
The pest insect has a high degree of gluttony and intensive reproduction, in one fruit season it can damage an entire orchard of apple trees.
It eats all the vegetative parts of trees: leaves, tree bark, inflorescences and apples.
A danger to the garden is a pest at the caterpillar stage, which, when released from the cocoon, begins to actively mine the foliage, forming a braid from the web around it. The affected foliage will acquire a brown hue, it dries and falls off.
The insect is able to absorb the green mass of trees for 1.5 months, then pupates in the nest, laying the future offspring. The butterflies that appeared after 14 days lay their eggs. As a result of the full cycle of pest development in trees, photosynthesis is completely disrupted. Apple trees lose their resistance to low temperatures and become vulnerable to frost in winter.
By the last days of May, caterpillars reach the upper part of the crown of trees and build wide nests there, capturing new leaves. The number of tracks in one nest reaches 1000.
As a result of a massive attack, the trees cease to bear fruit. Crops from previously damaged apple trees are harvested only after 2 years from the date of elimination of the pest.
They begin to fight moths on apple trees from the end of April, while the caterpillars weakened after wintering are still susceptible to toxic chemicals and have not caused significant damage to trees.
Garden treatment scheme:
- initially carefully examine the garden culture for the presence of moths, determining the nature of the attack of the pest;
- when mass clusters are detected, they opt for insecticides, in isolated cases they treat the garden culture with biological products;
- processing is carried out not selectively, but everywhere, because the pest is able to migrate to untreated trees;
- to destroy eggs, spraying of apple trees is carried out at least 2 times during the fruit season, with the choice being made in favor of preparations containing paraffin.
Insects can cause serious damage to the tree.
Immediately after the treatment, the trees are fed, introducing fertilizer complexes under the root. Suitable fertilizers:
- finished mineral compounds;
- carbamide, 1.5 tbsp which is bred in 10 liters of water. The working fluid is initially sprayed on the projection of the crown, and then the soil is watered under the root;
- nitroammophosk, it is bred in a proportion of 1 tbsp. 10 l of water, bring under the root for trees under the age of 5 years of 2-3 liters, over 5 years of age - 5-6 liters.
Treatment with biological complexes
The advantage of biological products is a gentle effect on trees and humans and the absence of restrictions on the amount of application.
However, the effectiveness of these compounds is much less, the caterpillars die only a week after processing, because biological systems are not used for massive damage to the garden culture, when emergency measures are required.
To combat apple moth are suitable:
- Entobacterin - 100 g per 10 liters of water;
- Lepidocide - 20 grams per 10 liters of water;
- Bitoxibacillin - 70 g per 10 liters of water.
Spraying the garden culture with biological complexes is carried out at an ambient temperature of 15 ° C and above.
You can fight moth on apple trees with the help of insecticidal preparations: Actellik, IntaVir, Fosfamide and the like.
With massive damage to trees, they resort to the Fozalon insecticide, which contains organochlorine compounds that have a quick fatal effect on 70% of the caterpillars.
With the spread of the pest over a wide area, treatment with chemicals is not an effective way to control - they quickly become addictive to the active components, so the drugs need to be alternated.
For the destruction of adults, one treatment with an insecticidal agent is enough. You can completely get rid of the tracks only after 5-6 treatments with chemical compounds.
Folk remedies against moths
You can use folk remedies to fight moths.
Many gardeners prefer to deal with moth folk measures.
Hot peppers in pods are crushed and filled with 1 liter of water, boiled for 1 hour and incubated for 24 hours. In strained infusion for spraying add 40 g of laundry soap.
Tobacco infusion is prepared from 800 g of tobacco and 10 l of water, keeping for 24 hours.
In addition to treatments with biological products, chemical and folk remedies, they use mechanical measures to combat apple moth:
- manually spring brown brown foliage is collected, in which the caterpillars are settled;
- using a stream of water under high pressure, wash the tracks from the foliage;
- at the flowering stage and after its completion, caterpillar cocoons are collected by hand or through poles with forks at the ends.
To destroy the pest, they use the attraction of natural enemies of insects - birds, to the garden plot, hanging feeders on apple trees. The natural enemies of the moth are also the tahina fly and the braconid wasp parasitizing on the caterpillars.
Additionally hang traps:
- pheromones attract males, preventing them from fertilizing females;
- with UV radiation they lure into the light insects, which, in contact with a grid under voltage, die from a coronary discharge.
Particularly gluttonous apple moth destroys all vegetative parts of plants. Without timely measures, it can damage the entire garden culture in a season.
Pest control measures include pruning, thinning out the apple crown, and burning all plant debris.
Garden treatment is carried out with biological products and chemicals; folk methods are actively used.