Ways to deal with aphids on the apple tree
Aphids on the apple tree give a lot of trouble to gardeners. It appears more often on trees growing on soil, poor in the content of phosphorus, boron and magnesium during the supersaturation of nitrogen.
Ways to deal with aphids on the apple tree
The main breeders of the pest are ants, which feed on their paddy and protect the livestock from insect attacks to get food.
Reasons for the appearance
More often on the apple culture, red-headed (blood), gall or gray aphids are found. The size is not more than 0.2-0.3 cm. It lays eggs on the bark of trees, from which an individual hatches after heat, and it leaves another 40-50 larvae.
Active reproduction of the pest occurs at the beginning of autumn.
Appears on plants that have a large proportion of amino acids in the foliage juice. This is due to a lack of potassium, phosphorus, boron and magnesium with a simultaneously high nitrogen content. The source of the latter is chicken droppings, an excessive amount of which overloads the soil.
Primary signs and subsequent harm from aphids
With the appearance of aphids, apple leaves begin to curl, they become black and dry. Neoplasms and a sticky coating appear on them - the result of the vital activity of the pest. This leads to a disruption in the process of photosynthesis, a suspension in the development of young seedlings and loss of yield.
Colonies of ants flock to the aphid emitted by the aphid, which feed not only on their juice, but also encroach on the apple kidneys and fruits.
The insect is able to quickly spread through the air, moving to new garden areas. Many pests are carriers of bacterial, viral, and fungal infections. So, with the appearance of a dark coating on the foliage, one can judge the defeat of the soot fungus.
Chemical methods of control
So that the pest does not eat all the foliage, during its massive attack on the garden crop, they resort to pesticides.
Highly toxic preparations containing carbosulfan, thiacloprid, thiamethoxam help get rid of aphids:
The first three act on adult imagoes and larvae. Kinmix is designed to fight during the growth of green mass
To treat an apple tree from aphids is better in the early spring, to the stage of bud blooming. This makes it possible to reduce the likelihood of leaf burns and increases the effectiveness of the harmful effects of pesticides on larvae.
There are a number of drugs with less toxic effects, including those used during the first foliage, but before the flowering stage begins.
Aphids are resistant to chemical poisons; therefore, it is recommended to alternate them in the treatment in order to increase their effectiveness and prevent the pest from getting used to the active substances.
To process a garden crop with pesticides is enough. The action manifests itself on the first day after treatment and lasts 2-3 weeks.
To consolidate the result after 3 weeks, treatment from aphids is carried out with more gentle means, they are used throughout the entire growing season of the apple tree, with an interval of 20 days. An effective remedy is Iskra (1 tablet per 10 liters of water).
Spraying with infusions will relieve the problem
Folk remedies help get rid of aphids on the apple tree and at the same time remove ants:
- traps in the form of strips (usually from agrofibre), impregnated with a substance with a repulsive pest odor (for example, with carbolic oil, infused on anise), such strips encircle the trunks of apple trees in their lower part;
- onion and garlic arrows, which rub the trunks of young seedlings, because the smell of these crops is unpleasant to aphids and ants;
- garlic infusion - 5 cloves per 100 ml of water, insist 1 day, add 10 g of soap and 2 tsp. vegetable oil, the resulting solution is sprayed onto the apple tree;
- onion peel - 200 g per 10 liters of water, incubated for 5 days and sprayed on the garden culture;
- tobacco and wormwood infusions, as well as decoctions with hot peppers and celandine, they spray trees (500 g per 10 liters of water can withstand for 2 days).
With the mass distribution of aphids, a highly concentrated tobacco infusion with ash and kerosene is sprayed: 200 g of shag, 200 g of laundry soap, 100 g of ash powder, 50 ml of kerosene.
The frequency of use of folk remedies depends on the degree of damage to the garden culture and on average is every 5 days.
Root fertilizers of horticultural culture with fly ash and top dressing containing ashes help to effectively combat aphids. They increase the level of potassium and phosphorus in the soil.
It is also permissible to spray trees with ash solutions - 200 g of ash powder per 10 l of water, for better adhesion of the liquid to the foliage and tree bark, 50 g of laundry soap are mixed into the solution.
During processing, special attention is paid to the underside of the leaves, where the pest prefers to settle.
You can fight aphids on the apple tree in other ways, without toxic effects on trees and fruits.
Aphid is eliminated by planting repelling plants and attracting its natural enemies - beneficial insects and birds to the garden.
Plants are planted along the perimeter of the garden and directly near the trees, the smell of which repels the pest. These include lavender, calendula, tansy, garlic, tomatoes.
It is worth avoiding the planting of such plants that attract aphids - nasturtiums, cosmeas, poppies, viburnum, begonias, lindens.
To attract birds to the garden, hang feeders and birdhouses. Aphids are eaten by robin linnet, sparrow, tit.
The natural enemies of the pest, including insects, are a ladybug, a lace-eye, wasp, and a fly-bug. You can attract them if you plant marigolds, fragrant herbs and nettles next to apple trees.
Extermination of anthills
It is necessary to get rid of ants in the area
Black ants feed on the paddy, therefore they act as defenders of the pest and protect the aphids from attacking other insects.
The initial treatment of trees from pests occurs in early spring: it is permissible to use not only folk, but also chemical means.
Further fight against aphids is carried out taking into account the vegetative stages of development of the apple tree.
- in the first third, during the period when the green mass appears before flowering, preparations containing anabazine sulfate or a substance similar to it are permissible, they have a complex effect and create protection against most types of pests;
- in the middle of the month they prefer non-toxic folk remedies, solutions based on pepper and soap are effective;
- in the last third of June, trunks and skeletal branches are treated with preparations containing thiacloprid.
- dwarf and young apple trees with early ripening juices protect from the pest without the use of pesticides, for which they cut off the tips of year-old branches to the maximum;
- green leaves of winter varieties and tall trees can be treated with insecticides, in which the active substances are represented by dimethoatom and chlorpyrifosomes, which have comprehensive protection against most pests.
- use mainly folk remedies since this is the ripening time of apples;
- during a mass attack, the pest is sprayed with gentle means, for example, imidacloprid;
During the summer, the garden culture is also fed with superphosphate: 200 g of granules are boiled for 20 minutes in 1 liter of water.
Preventive measures help prevent the appearance of a harmful insect:
- regular watering, proper feeding, mulching and sprinkling of the apple crown provide a dense foliage structure and its elasticity, which is difficult to aphids, as a result, it migrates to other trees;
- the restriction of the use of nitrogen-containing fertilizers normalizes the balance of organic compounds in the soil and plant sap of the foliage of trees, such garden crops become unattractive for the pest;
- Before preserving the apple orchard for wintering, the bark is thoroughly cleaned under the trees, under which aphids prefer to hide under the cold season, this is done by means of a scraper or wire brush, separating the dead areas on the trunk and skeletal branches, while the soil under the tree is lined with foil, to subsequently be collected and destroy peeled bark, in which eggs and aphid larvae may be present.
Aphids on apple trees cause a reduction in yield. It is a distributor of viral, bacterial and fungal diseases, and waste products (pads) secreted by the pest attract ants that eat kidneys and apples to the garden culture.
Appears when there is an excess of nitrogen in the soil with a simultaneous lack of potassium and phosphorus. The choice of means and measures depends on the vegetative stage of development of the apple tree.