Variety of columnar apple tree Arbat
One of the oldest varieties is the columnar apple tree Arbat. It has two important qualities - compact size and high productivity. It begins to bear fruit in the first year of planting, which attracts many gardeners.
Variety of columnar apple tree Arbat
Arbat variety is great for growing in the northwestern part of Russia and the Moscow region.
The apple tree can be obtained by seed or vaccinated on a dwarf rootstock.
The tree is single-stemmed, practically does not form branches, which greatly facilitates the harvesting process. It reaches 3 m in industrial gardens, in private gardening a little less - 1.5-2.5 m.
The crown is pyramidal in shape, its circumference is about 20 cm. Fruit ovaries form on the central conductor.
Apples are small (120-130 g), round-elongated, dark red in color, with a cream-colored cross section. It tastes moderately sweet, with a slight acidity and a pronounced aroma.
Advantages and disadvantages
- compact size, which allows you to grow a tree in a small area - for one 0.5 m² is enough;
- good yields;
- resistance to diseases and parasites is observed;
- tolerates low temperatures;
- self-pollinated plant.
The description includes several drawbacks - a short shelf life of the fruit (3-4 months), without normalizing the inflorescences and fruit ovaries, apples are smaller, and they do not tolerate transportation.
Another disadvantage is the short life span of the tree - 15-17 years.
This variety of columnar apple trees has no fruiting frequency. A small tree spends all the nutrients received for the formation of fruit ovaries, only a small part goes to the development of aboveground and underground parts.
Fruiting lasts for 15 years.
The variety is distinguished by good yield.
The first crop gives the tree in the first year of life. Since the 5th year, the yield is about 20 kg.
Apples harvested in late August or early September are stored until the end of December without loss of taste or marketability.
This strain is characterized by overload of fruit branches in connection with increased productivity, therefore, normalization of fruits is required.
Disease resistance and winter hardiness
With good care and maintenance, this variety is rarely sick and affected by pests. But gardeners still recommend that preventive measures be taken.
For full growth, development and high-quality fruiting, the trunk and the trunk area are treated with insecticides from parasites - Actellik, Aktara, Fundazol, Bazudin.
Do this in early spring, along with sanitary pruning.
To prevent the occurrence of a viral, bacterial or fungal infection, the crown is treated with a Bordeaux mixture (1%). Sprayed in early spring and late autumn.
Despite the high frost resistance, young and adult trees require good shelter for the winter, as high risk of freezing of the top of the center conductor. Under cover, the tree is able to withstand temperature drops of -30 °.
A loose, light and fertile soil with a neutral acidity level is suitable for this crop. For landing, they choose a sunny place where there are no winds and underground waters lie deep.
For cultivation, you should take strong, healthy seedlings, at least 70 cm long, with a strong root system, without signs of disease and parasite damage.
The best planting material is annual or biennial seedlings.
The ideal time for planting the Arbat variety is early spring, when the snow will melt: at this time the buds will not have time to bloom, and this is the most important thing for the successful cultivation of apple trees.
Some gardeners plant trees in the fall when the buds are fully formed.
Trees are planted in rows
The optimal landing pattern is 30-40 cm in a row and 1.5-2 m between rows.
At the bottom of the pits, the nutrient composition is covered with a mixture of garden soil, compost (3 kg), superphosphate (50 g), potassium salt (50 g) and wood ash (1 kg). From above, the nutrient composition is sprinkled with a thin layer of earth, roots are laid on top, straightened and sprinkled with garden soil. For stability of the seedling in the middle of the pit, a peg is driven in.
When planting, the root neck is left on the surface of the soil. All voids are well covered, and the soil in the near-trunk zone is crushed.
After planting, the plants are watered abundantly with water (3 buckets of water per seedling). Then the near-trunk zone is mulched with peat or last year's manure.
All care activities begin in early spring, when the last frost will pass.
- Over the entire season, trees need to be watered several times: at the initial stage of the growing season, before flowering and after it, during the period of fruit pouring and in autumn - after the leaves fall. 3-4 seed buckets of water are poured under seedlings aged 1-3 years, starting from the age of five, the amount of water is increased to 10 buckets.
- After watering, the soil is loosened to maintain moisture permeability. As weeds are removed, weed is removed. After each moisturizing procedure, the near-stem zone is mulched with peat, garden soil or humus. This prevents the drying of the soil and the growth of weeds.
- Normalization of fruit ovaries is a prerequisite for this variety. The procedure is carried out in the summer in order to avoid overloading the shoots and chopping fruits. On annual seedlings, all flower buds are removed so that the plant throws all its forces into the development of the aboveground and underground parts.
- Fertilization is carried out on the 3rd year after planting. Use a solution of chicken manure (1:20) or cow manure (1:10). They feed in the early spring and late fall. Additionally, superphosphate and potassium salt are added to the soil - 50 g per bucket of water. Such nutrition is carried out at the beginning of flowering and at the stage of fruit pouring.
- Pruning the crown is strictly for sanitary purposes. The procedure is carried out in early spring and autumn - after leaf fall. All organs damaged by frost, winds and diseases must be removed. Places of cuts are treated with copper sulfate, then covered with garden var.
- Preparing for the winter. In the fall, when the trees drop the leaves, you can begin winter preparation. The tree trunk is treated with slaked lime, wrapped with a metal mesh to protect against rodents, sprinkled with a hill of earth, rotted manure or peat. Spruce spruce branches are laid upstairs. Young trees can be completely covered with roofing material or cardboard boxes to protect the top of the main conductor from freezing.
Disease and Pest Prevention
Processing helps protect the tree from pests
From parasites (aphids, moths, caterpillars, spider mites), insecticides are used.
Processing of the crown and near-stem zone is carried out in early spring, before flowering and in autumn, after leaf fall.
From diseases (powdery mildew, rust, cytosporosis, gray rot and mosaic), the crown is sprayed with copper-containing preparations at least 2 times - in spring and autumn.
To destroy larvae, eggs, fungus wintering in the soil, the near-stem zone is treated with iron or copper sulfate in spring and autumn.
After spraying, the garden is dug up. It is also important to keep the site clean, remove damaged parts on the tree in time, and remove vegetation residues and fallen leaves from the site.
Ripening and fruiting
The crop of the columnar apple tree Arbat ripens together, usually in late August - early September. Fruiting is stable and annual, even in adverse weather conditions.
For storage of fruits certain conditions are required:
- low humidity - about 50%;
- temperature within - 1-3 °;
- good ventilation in the room.
In such conditions, the apples will remain until the end of December. To prevent premature decay, they are laid in layers in cardboard or wooden boxes, shifting each layer with thick paper. Some instead of paper lay a layer of straw or hay.
You can store the crop on a glazed balcony, loggia, the main thing is that the temperature does not drop to 0 °.
A small number of apples can be placed in the refrigerator compartment in the compartment for storing vegetables and fruits.
Column-shaped apple tree Arbat has gained great popularity in both private and industrial gardening.
The crop description includes high productivity, early fruiting, winter hardiness and unpretentiousness in care.
Also, many are attracted to a tree purely from an aesthetic point of view - it is considered highly decorative, therefore, garden plots adorn it.