Varieties of honey mushrooms and their beneficial properties

Edible mushrooms are one of the most common in the region. They have a rich mushroom aroma and are equally suitable for both canning and cooking hot dishes. But there are inedible doubles in the forest that are dangerous to human life.

Varieties of honey mushrooms and their beneficial properties

Characterization and habitat

Edible mushrooms are different from other varieties. A cap of small diameter flaunts on a thin and long leg, under which the plates are located. The height of the legs does not exceed 15 cm. There is almost always a ring “skirt” adjacent to the leg.

Young mushrooms have small scales on the hat. Painted in cream, honey or brown. Sometimes a reddish tint is present. The diameter of the hat varies between 5-8 cm. The color of the legs matches the color of the hat, but differs in tone.

The color of the legs below is more saturated than above. The color is influenced by the variety of the fungus, its place of growth and age. They grow most often on hemp, which is why the people are called hemp.

Harvested throughout the summer and autumn. Honey mushrooms also appear in the spring. But there are few spring species.

Habitat

Honey mushrooms grow in groups, on trees or tall bushes. The exception is the royal (pimpled) honey agaric, which grows alone and looks like a spiky or needle ball. Most often settle on weakened trees or on old stumps. They can choose a tree that has fallen or starts to fall. They are found on the ground, not far from the tree, and feed on its root system.

Do not take root in cold conditions. Most often found in deciduous forests, rarely grow in pine. They prefer logging or ravines.

Wood mushrooms are especially well known to Far Eastern residents.

Varieties of honey mushrooms

The following varieties of honey mushrooms grow in our region:

  • summer or fake;
  • autumn or real;
  • winter
  • meadow;
  • thick-legged.

Summer (lime) honey mushrooms

The earliest openings are summer. For them to appear in spring, winter must end early. As soon as it rains, the first spring crops rise, the earth warms up, it will be possible to make a trial exit into the forest.

The diameter of the cap is 5-8 cm. First, it is hemispherical with the edges tightly adjacent to the leg. With age, it opens and its shape becomes flatter. It is colored unevenly. The main color in the center is light brown, dark brown or yellow with brown spots, and the edges are 1-2 tones darker than the main one. If you look under the hat, then there are plates, which in young mushrooms are pale yellow, and in adults - red-brown. At a young age, the plates are covered with a thin white or yellowish film (private cover).

The leg is yellow-brown, has a dense structure. Its length varies from 3 to 8 cm, and the diameter does not exceed 0.12 cm. Decorated with a cream ring. Below the "skirt" there are small scales. Fruits from the beginning of summer to the beginning of autumn. Under suitable climatic conditions, it begins to bear fruit in May.

Autumn (real) honey mushrooms

The meaty hats of the autumn variety at a young age resemble the hemisphere in shape, and in the mature one they have an umbrella-shaped shape with the edges bent inward. Due to the small scales, the surface of the hat is dull, its diameter varies from 3 to 10 cm. It is painted in cream, ocher or brown. The plates are hidden under a white film, characterized by creamy tones at a young age, and brown in the old. The flesh is cream colored.

The length of the legs does not exceed 10 cm, and the thickness is from 1 to 2 cm. It is even and dense in structure. Unevenly painted in beige and cream color. In places, a more pronounced yellow or cream shade. There is a ring-skirt.

Autumn mushrooms grow in August. The last honeycomb, real or ordinary, appears at the end of November. Prefer birch and oak groves, less often grow on aspen stumps. High yields are observed every 3 years.

Winter honey mushrooms

Winter mushrooms can be found in December

The diameter of the cap does not exceed 8 cm. The shape first resembles a bell. As it ages, it turns into an umbrella-shaped with slightly curved inward edges. The hat is usually painted yellow-ocher or red-brown. To the touch a little sticky. The edges are a few semitones lighter than the center. The plates are white or light beige, thin, frequent.

The height of flexible thin legs varies from 7 to 15 cm. They are velvety to the touch, unevenly painted in honey, golden, light or dark brown colors. Mostly honey at a young age, and brown at an adult. At the base of the leg, the shade is the darkest, and closer to the hat the lightest. Cut mushrooms change color in the place of the cut - there they become darker.

The bright color against the background of white snow does not allow winter mushrooms to go unnoticed. Look for them better on birches, poplars, willows and lindens. Less common in conifers. Harvest time begins in September. The last wave of fruiting occurs in December. Often there are winter or winter mushrooms in the Altai Territory.

Winter mushrooms have no poisonous double mushrooms.

Meadow mushrooms

The honey agaric meadow or garlic is popularly known as the mushrooms of the steppe. These edible mushrooms look homely. But appreciated for the rich taste. Large mushrooms of this species cannot be found. The diameter of the cap does not exceed 6 cm; it can be light beige or light red in color. The plates are cream, not densely arranged.

A feature of this type is that hats practically do not change their structure and color with age. The edge of the adult mushroom cap is fragile. In the absence of rain, it withers and decreases in size. After the rain, it acquires the previous dimensions and shape. This explains its fragility. Go after them after the rains have passed. It is after rain that they are clearly visible from under the grass.

The height of the legs, thin and velvety to the touch, does not exceed 10 cm and it is painted in ocher color. The lower part is darker than the upper. Meadow honey mushrooms appear in June, and finish bearing fruit in November. Prefers forest glades.

Fat footed honey mushrooms

The honeyfoot thickfoot got this name because of its appearance. The diameter of his cap is 10-12 cm, it is brown or pinkish in color. There are flakes that are colored in gray, yellowish or light brown. In the center there are more caps than at the edges. First, the edges are painted white or yellow, and become brown with age. Frequent records are first white, then beige. As they grow, they become brown. Young mushrooms have a “skirt” on the club-shaped leg, which disappears with age. These mushrooms are very popular among cooks. To taste they surpass even porcini mushrooms.

Irina Selyutina (Biologist):

Long-legged honey agaric was considered an autumn species for a long time, mycologists noticed its characteristic distinctive features:

  • Growth season: peak harvest occurs in October-early November (autumn mushrooms are harvested in September).
  • Habitats: never settles on a living tree.

The cap of the honey foot is covered with conical scales of gray or light brown color. Most of them are in the center. Closer to the edge, they become solitary and are no longer in a "standing", "lying" position. If we compare the adult and young specimen, it is clearly seen that in old mushrooms, the scales are located only closer to the center of the cap.

By the way. Even experienced mushroom pickers consider autumn mushrooms and thick-legged honey mushrooms to be one species.

Forest mushrooms prefer to grow plantations where there are spruce and pine trees. They love alder trunks. It is impossible to find them on the trunk of a living tree, however, as on a healthy stump. This mushroom grows on dying trees or rotten hemp. Not bundled, but grows in large groups. Fruiting - the second half of summer and autumn.

Less popular honey mushrooms

Gray platelet or poppy seed mushroom is rare, like reed, October, bulbous, marbled, chased (swamp), dark, agrocybe (poplar), northern.

An interesting appearance has a bulbous-legged appearance, and spruce mushrooms, which become spotty with age. And northern mushrooms have healing properties. All of the above varieties also belong to the category of edible mushrooms.

There are others - they belong to the category of conditionally edible. It is easy to distinguish them from inedible ones by the same signs as edible ones. There are many of these species and their description will take a lot of time. And they are suitable for use only at a young age and only after heat treatment. It’s better to cook them. Raw and under-prepared, they are harmful to health.

Beneficial features

Honey mushrooms are delicious and healthy mushrooms with a rich chemical composition. They are full of vitamins, trace elements, proteins, amino acids, fiber and natural sugars. The largest amounts of them contain zinc, calcium, copper, iron, potassium and phosphorus. They are recommended for anemia, vitamin deficiency, eye diseases, hormonal disorders. To the body received a daily norm of trace elements involved in the process of hematopoiesis, only 100 g of fungi are enough. They are also recommended for cancer prevention. They also have antiseptic properties, can minimize the risk of diseases of the cardiovascular system, and normalize blood pressure. Traditionally, traditional healers have resorted to their help to treat diseases of the liver and thyroid gland. In a small amount, their use is permitted in diabetes. Hypertension is not a contraindication.

Honey mushrooms contain many vitamins

Raw mushrooms should not be consumed. Also, they should not be given to children whose age has not reached 6 years, pregnant women and nursing mothers. When breastfeeding, they can cause serious harm to the health of the baby. In the presence of gastrointestinal diseases, you should first consult with your doctor and only then eat mushrooms.

As for nutritional value and indicators of BZHU, this is a dietary product with a calorie content of 22 kcal. The same amount of calories found in few vegetables and fruits. 100 g of honey mushrooms contain 2.2 g of protein. Fats and carbohydrates are contained in quantities of 1.2 and 0.5 g. With such a number of calories and such an energy value, they are not forbidden to use for people who are on a diet.

Preparation for cooking

First you need to sort out the fresh mushrooms brought from the forest. Those that are blackened or wormy will not work. Their processing is impractical. They spoil the taste of the whole dish and can harm the body.

Earthen lumps, any plaque and other contaminants are removed from the legs. Then, mushrooms are selected according to the size and integrity of the fruiting body. Small specimens go for canning. Lemon juice or acid is added to the blanks. They are placed in sterilized jars. Large and broken mushrooms are best used for preparing hot dishes or salads. Boil them for 10-15 minutes. In a double boiler, the cooking time is 15-20 minutes. It is important not to digest them. Soak before cooking is not necessary, just rinse well.

There are other ways to recycle. They are ideal for drying and freezing.

Irina Selyutina (Biologist):

If mushrooms left for freezing are very dirty, you will need to wipe each hat with a cloth dampened with water or an old kitchen towel and leave it to dry for 1 hour. Then honey mushrooms spread containers or packages in batches and sent to the freezer. If you want some of the mushrooms to be frozen for separate copies (for some personal reasons), then spread the mushrooms on flat surfaces of trays or chopping boards, freeze and only then place them in bags or containers for storage in the freezer.

Frozen mushrooms retain their taste better. Both fresh and boiled mushrooms are frozen. Fresh pre-washed. A large mushroom is cut into pieces.

Raw mushrooms have a less saturated flavor than those that have undergone heat treatment.

It is better not to take fully opened mushrooms. Revealed old mushrooms are less tasty and fragrant than young ones.

Double mushrooms

To recognize poisonous mushrooms, you need to know how they differ from edible ones. Many species have the so-called double species. The double of the summer honey agaric is a galerine fringed. She loves coniferous forests and grows alone. A distinctive feature is the color. It is uniform, there is no yellowish middle. Otherwise, there are no distinguishing features. If you are not sure that the mushroom found is edible, you should use the golden rule of the mushroom picker and not take it.

Autumn mushrooms look like a false red-bricked honey agaric. It is easy to distinguish them by the brighter color of the hat, which is orange at a young age, and red-brick in a mature age. Even in the inedible variety, shaggy scraps of the film, which covers the plates at a young age, are clearly visible at the ends of the cap.

Some similarities with edible fungi are tiger rows and pale grebes, even a small piece of which is easy to poison. But if you look at them closer, you can find differences. Yellow mushrooms (sulfur yellow) are also dangerous. Description of all varieties is impossible to give. Common signs of poisonous mushrooms are bright color and an unpleasant bitter taste. Most of them smell bad. On a break, the flesh acquires an unnatural shade (purple, orange, yellow-red, red). It’s worth watching under the hat. In poisonous varieties, the plates are most often greenish. Their poison affects all living organisms. Because of this, worm mushrooms are not inedible. It is better to bypass the large, overgrown mushroom.

In case of poisoning with false openings, medical assistance is needed. Symptoms of poisoning are nausea, vomiting, chills, fever. If at least one symptom is manifested, it is necessary to call a doctor.

Cultivated species

There are cultivated species, which include summer and poplar honey agaric, a hint (Chinese mushrooms). Cultivated mushrooms in taste are not inferior to wild ones. They multiply by mycelium. Mycelium can also be prepared on its own. To obtain mycelium, from which it is easiest to grow mushrooms, you will need a hat of a certain type and water. They bear fruit for 3-7 years. Mushrooms are grown at home, in the country or in the garden, most often in bags. Landing is carried out in a special ground, which contains wood residues. Use and stumps. But, to grow these species in the garden on a stump is not worth it. If there are healthy garden crops nearby (apple trees, pears, etc.), then spores can fall on them and mycelium will begin to form. Such a symbiosis is undesirable for trees, due to the fact that it leads to their death. Reproduction is fast. Growing at home does not require large cash costs, but it is a laborious process.

If you plant mycelium in the basement, you can harvest all year round. Fungus mushrooms bear 2-3 times in each month.

They called the mushroom as an open-air mushroom because fruit bodies are arranged as if they were braiding a tree trunk, forming a kind of living bracelet. He forms the same “bracelet” on a stump. In Latin, the name Armillaria is translated as “bracelet”. Useful properties and group growth are the advantages that a tree mushroom has. But, due to the fact that poisonous mushrooms are dangerous, they are collected carefully. It is advisable to first go to the forest with a mushroom picker, which will help to know the edible mushroom and show how to distinguish it from a false one. He will teach not only to distinguish between false and edible varieties, but also show mushroom places. The mushroom, the variety of which could not be determined, is not taken into the basket.

An interesting fact: sometimes there are giant honey mushrooms that weigh more than 10-15 kg. They have a large mycelium and thick hyphae that penetrate the wood.

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