Varieties of dwarfish apple trees for the suburbs
Dwarf apple trees for the Moscow region are represented by several groups with different ripening dates. The unique features of these varieties include early maturity, good winter hardiness and compactness of the crown, which makes it possible to grow several trees at once in a small area.
Varieties of dwarfish apple trees for the suburbs
Dwarf varieties have several important qualities:
- compact dimensions - the height of the tree is about 3 m, for semi-dwarf ones - 3.5-4 m, so they can be planted in a small area;
- the shape of the crown is columnar or branched, with a circumference of about 30-40 or 60-70 cm, respectively;
- due to its low growth, the harvesting procedure is facilitated;
- plants give a stable annual crop, with the exception of ordinary varieties.
The only drawback is a short lifespan, so they need to be replaced more often than regular varieties.
This group includes early ripe hybrid forms, the harvest of which occurs at the end of summer. After reviewing their description, you can choose a variety for your area.
In the third year of cultivation, the trees begin to give the first apples. Fruit picking is carried out in late July. The plant is prolific - in adulthood gives about 40 kg of fruit.
Spherical apples, slightly elongated, weighing 0.2 kg. Lime-colored peel contains light yellow longitudinal stripes. At the end of ripening, a reddish blush appears on the fruit. The pulp is very sweet, fragrant, white with a caramel flavor.
Shelf life of the crop in a cool, well-ventilated area is 3-4 months.
The best pollinating varieties are Suislepskoe and Borovinka.
Gives tasty, small apples - their weight is 120-130 g.
Fruits of a traditional round shape, with a glossy peel of light green color. Inside, dense, juicy with a pronounced apple flavor. Harvesting begins in early August.
The variety will delight its productivity
Dwarf apple tree, its maximum height is 2-2.5 m, circumference - 2 m. Winter hardiness is high - it can withstand temperatures down to -30 °.
Large-fruited variety (weight 150-250 g). The apples are round, yellow in color with a blush on the side and a sweetish-sour taste.
From a young plant can be removed - 5-7 kg of fruit, adult trees yield a yield of up to 20 kg.
The disadvantage is that the fruits are not subject to long storage, they quickly deteriorate (1.5 months after removal).
This group consists of varieties of dwarf apple trees for the Moscow region, the ripening period of which varies from early September to late October.
Dwarf hybrid form - in adulthood reaches 2 m in height.
Bright fiery apples, average weight 0.2 kg. Harvesting takes place in September.
The first fruits are tied two years after planting. Every year, the tree increases the amount of yield. Up to 15 kg can be removed from a tree of five years old.
The tree forms the first fruit ovaries in the 3-4th year of cultivation. Harvesting is carried out in the last decade of September.
The variety is large-fruited (weight 300 to 350 g). The apples are bright red, very juicy, sweet with a slight acidity.
This is one of the varieties of autumn ripening resistant to diseases and parasites.
The disadvantage is poor frost resistance, therefore, for the winter trees need good shelter.
Variety Streifling (or Autumn Striped) bears fruit in small fruits (their weight is 150-200 g). The apples are round or oval, green with vertical light yellow stripes. They taste sweet, with a slight acidity.
The tree has a superficial root system, therefore its resistance to winter cold is very weak. To avoid freezing of the roots, the trunk area is mulched with a thick layer of horse or cow manure, the trunk is covered with roofing material or spanbond.
Harvesting takes place in September.
Glory to the Winners
This variety of apple trees growing in the Moscow region ripens in early September.
Small-sized apples - weigh 120-180 g. Light green or yellow, with a reddish blush. They taste sweet.
Winter varieties can be harvested in late autumn
These semi-dwarf varieties are suitable for the Moscow Region; they ripen in late autumn and have a long shelf life.
One of the oldest varieties with high immunity from diseases and parasites. The tree enters the fruiting phase in the 5th or 6th year after planting. Despite low yields, it bears fruit every year.
The apples are small - they weigh about 100 g. They taste sweet, with a slight acidity. The aroma is pronounced.
The first fruits on the tree appear 5-6 years after the planting of the seedling. It is characterized by intensive growth, therefore, annually needs pruning. The correct cut of the shoots increases the number of crops - annually cut young growth by 1/3 of the length.
Low-growing apple trees have high frost resistance, they are also resistant to diseases and are practically not affected by pests.
The fruits are small - their weight is up to 80 g, roundish, slightly squeezed in the area of the stalk. The color is yellowish red. The variety is valued for its long shelf life - about 9 months.
A tree of low growth - 2.5-3 m, does not differ in strong growth, therefore pruning is not necessary. The first crop gives in the third year of life. The variety is resistant to scab, successfully tolerates severe winters.
Harvesting is carried out in the middle or at the end of October. The average weight of the fruit is 150 g. Bordeaux skin, pink flesh, sweet, juicy. Shelf life is long - up to six months.
Dwarf kolonovidny variety with high yields - up to 30 kg of apples can be removed from one adult tree.
Fruits are small in size, weigh 100-120 g. The shape is round, slightly flattened. Scarlet skin with elements of a yellow tint. The pulp is creamy, juicy and very sweet.
Fruits can be stored fresh for up to six months
The undersized hybrid bears fruit in large green fruits, their weight is about 200 g. The crop is very tasty, juicy and sweet, harvested in the last decade of September or early October.
Appreciated for excellent presentation and good keeping quality - up to 6 months.
Apple trees are self-fertile, therefore, do not need a neighborhood of pollinating varieties.
Not all gardeners manage to get a low-growing variety on a dwarf or semi-dwarf rootstock; therefore, it is easier to purchase a ready-made seedling in a garden nursery.
When choosing planting material, the roots should be carefully examined - they should be the same color, at least 40 cm long.
The optimal length of the central conductor is 70 cm, there should be no branches on it, and the bark should be smooth without signs of disease, injury and mold.
For planting, it is better to choose seedlings at the age of 1-2 years, preferably with closed roots.
Site preparation and deadlines
The apple tree is a sun-loving culture, so it should be planted in a sunny place where there are no drafts. The soil is suitable loamy, slightly acidic, loose and fertile.
Dwarf varieties can be planted in spring or autumn. The advantage of spring planting is that the seedlings have a lot of time to adapt, which means that the risk of freezing in winter is minimized.
The landing site is harvested in the fall - the soil is sprinkled with last year's manure (1 bucket), wood ash (1 kg), superphosphate (80 g) and potassium salt (50 g). The proportions are calculated for a plot of 1 square. m. After fertilizing, the soil is dug up and leveled.
With the advent of spring, as soon as the snow melts and the positive outside temperature stabilizes, you can begin to land.
Given that the dwarf species do not take up much space on the site, planting pits are torn at a distance of 50 cm from each other, observing a distance between rows of 90-100 cm.
Dwarf trees do not take up much space
They are shed with warm, settled water, half covered with garden earth, roots are lowered and straightened. Drive in a wooden or metal stake nearby for support.
When deepening the roots, it is important that the root neck is slightly higher than the surface of the soil. The roots are covered with earth, trampled, the trunk is tied to a peg and moisturized abundantly - three buckets of water are poured under one plant.
To prevent drying out of the soil, the near-trunk zone is mulched with manure, peat or garden soil.
To increase immunity, proper growth and fruiting, dwarf varieties require regular hydration, top dressing, pruning and loosening of the soil.
Seedlings watered several times during the season:
- in early spring - before the start of sap flow;
- 2 weeks before flowering;
- as soon as the apple tree fades;
- at the stage of pouring fruit;
- in the fall - after the leaves fall off ..
Depending on the age, a different amount of water is used - 2-3 buckets are poured under the young trees, 8-9 buckets under the adult, fruiting apple trees.
Loosening and mulching
After watering, the soil is loosened to avoid the formation of an earth crust on the surface. Useful vegetation helps increase soil aeration - green peas, vetch, mustard are sown in the garden.
To prevent drying out of the soil and the growth of weeds, the near-trunk zone of seedlings is mulched with nutrient components - horse, cow manure or peat.
Dwarf apple trees growing in the Moscow region must be fed more often than ordinary varieties - every 14 days. This need for nutritional components is due to abundant fruiting and the absence of a massive root system.
Starting from the third year of life, trees are fertilized with complex compounds for fruit stands - 40 g of substance per bucket of water. Additionally, fertilize with mullein solution (1 liter of substance per bucket of water). The resulting solution was diluted in 10 l of water. Contribute twice - in early spring or mid-autumn.
Apple trees need to be fed once every two weeks
In the summer, apple trees can be fed with complex mineral fertilizers: 1 tbsp. l superphosphate and 2 tbsp. l potassium is diluted in 10 liters of water. The same top dressing is introduced in late autumn, after the leaves fall.
Dwarf trees with superficial roots need good shelter. First, the trunk is treated with slaked lime, then sprinkled with a thick layer of mulch from peat, humus or garden soil, spruce spruce branches are placed on top.
After falling snow, the spruce branches are removed, and the trunk is sprinkled with a snowdrift.
This procedure helps to form the correct crown shape of the tree and increase its yield. The procedure is carried out in early spring - in late March or early April.
For dwarf colon-shaped forms, only a sanitary haircut is carried out to remove organs damaged by frost, winds and diseases.
Low-growing varieties with a spreading crown are trimmed immediately after planting - the central stem is shortened by 20 cm, the next year it is cut again, and the side branches are trimmed by 15 cm.
Of the skeletal branches in the front row, 3-4 of the strongest are left. In the third year, a second row of 2-3 shoots is formed. All shoots growing inside the crown are cut into a ring.
Disease and Pest Prevention
During the cultivation process, the dwarf apple tree can be affected by powdery mildew, gray rot, cytosporosis, mosaic and rust. To destroy the causative agents of these sores, fungicides are used (copper sulfate, Bordeaux mixture). Processing of the crown is carried out in early spring and late autumn.
From parasites (aphids, moths, caterpillars) use insecticides - Actellik, Fundazol or Aktaru. Double treatment is carried out in spring and autumn - two weeks after the planned treatment for diseases.
For preventive purposes, you should avoid the thickening of the garden, remove weeds from the site on time, dig up the soil on the site annually and conduct a regular inspection for the presence of diseases and pests.
For the suburbs, varieties obtained by grafting the usual variety on a dwarf or semi-dwarf rootstock are best suited. There are many such varieties, each of them has its own characteristics.
With good care, proper planting and proper attention, you can easily and successfully grow any apple tree. And it will give you a good and high-quality crop in 2-3 years after planting.