Varieties of black grapes
Black grapes are a variety of culture with dark blue berries. It is grown on an industrial scale, most often used in winemaking, consumed fresh and dried. The berry contains a lot of nutrients.
Varieties of black grapes
The composition of black grapes
The benefits of black grapes for the body have long been proven. He is advised for the prevention and treatment of many diseases. Beneficial substances are found in the pulp, peel and seeds. Berries are appreciated for the following:
- They contain a large amount of antioxidants. There are more than 300 of them. These substances neutralize free radicals that damage cells and contribute to a decrease in immunity and the development of malignant tumors. Antioxidants contain not only the pulp, but also the bones from which the healing and cosmetic oil is made.
- The dark color of the berries is partly due to the high content of flavonoids, which positively affect the heart and blood vessels. Resveratrol lowers cholesterol in the blood and counteracts the cancerous degeneration of cells. Querticin prevents platelet aggregation and blood clots.
- Phenolic acids in combination with flavonoids reduce cholesterol and even partially dissolve already formed plaques.
- Pectin or vegetable wax regulates the digestive system, acts as a sorbent of toxic substances.
- Phytosterols have antioxidant properties, positively affect the state of the immune system, and counteract the growth of viruses and bacteria.
In addition to these biologically active substances in black grapes there are lots of vitamins and minerals that are good for health. The first place among them is ascorbic acid and vitamin K. Vitamin C enhances immunity, strengthens capillaries. Vitamin K affects blood coagulation. Beta-carotene improves night vision, the condition of the skin, nails and hair, and immunity.
The composition of the BJU (protein fats, carbohydrates):
- proteins (proteins) - 0.2 g;
- fats - 0.1 g;
- carbohydrates - 16.2 g.
The ratio of BZHU: 1: 1: 98%
Calorie content of 100 g of the product is approximately 2.8-3.5% of the daily allowance for humans. Indicators vary, depending on the variety.
The benefits and harms of black grapes
Black grapes bring both benefits and harm to human health. There are conditions in which it is advised to eat these delicious berries. But there are also contraindications to their use.
The benefits of black grapes
Black grapes are useful in many diseases. It is recommended for prevention, maintenance. Its effect on the human body:
- Improves memory, concentration.
- Soothes, relieves stress.
- Prevents the development of Alzheimer's disease in older people.
- Prevents cancer.
- Reduces sugar in diabetes.
- Regulates the work of the cardiovascular system, reduces pressure.
- The benefits of black grapes are typical for vision: it improves the condition of the retina.
- It improves the functioning of the organs of the endocrine system.
- Thinns sputum, reduces cough.
These berries are recommended for people engaged in mental work, students and schoolchildren. In small quantities, they are advised to use for diabetes. Grapes are indicated for hypertension, CHS, during the rehabilitation period after a heart attack, atherosclerosis. It helps to fight colds, bronchitis, prevents these diseases. In small doses, grapes with pits fix, if consumed a lot, weakens.
Berries are especially beneficial for women.
The use of black grapes for women has been proven. It regulates hormones, establishes a menstrual cycle. Regular consumption of berries helps get rid of menstrual pain, premenstrual syndrome. They improve the condition of the skin of the face, hair, slow down aging. Masks made of pulp and juice smooth fine wrinkles, remove age spots. Fruits are also good for men. The rich composition of minerals and vitamins contained in them improves sperm quality, therefore eating berries is recommended for infertility.
Especially useful are black grapes with seeds. They contain the most antioxidants. He is advised to eat for the prevention and treatment of colds, the prevention of oncology. The product is included in the diet because of its low calorie content. After eating it, you want to eat less, your appetite decreases. Only a dietitian should prescribe nutrition for weight loss, because the berry has contraindications for use.
The harm of black grapes
Black grapes are harmful if you eat too much of them. It is not recommended to abuse berries to pregnant women.
It should limit the use of grapes to patients with diabetes, because it contains a large amount of glucose. It is contraindicated in acute gastrointestinal diseases, gastritis, and ulcers.
Digestive disorders occur if you eat berries along with fatty foods, milk, mineral water. Do not recommend their use at night. Do not give grapes to children under one year old.
Wine grapes of black grapes
Wine grapes of black grapes are grown on an industrial scale. Most of the harvest goes to the production of the oldest alcoholic drink. Part also goes on sale fresh, goes to juices.
A brief description of the most popular varieties:
- Odessa. It is called so because it was bred in the Odessa region. The cluster is medium, weighs 140-280 g, the berry is round, black, with a diameter of 113-16 mm and thin skin, a bisexual flower. Young leaves with a rich wine tint, mature - dark green. Ripening - 160-165 days, high productivity.
- Maxi. Late variety with high frost resistance. It has elongated cone-shaped clusters of small size (300-350 g). The fruits are oval, small (3-4 g), dark purple or black. Sugar content is medium, high acidity.
- Bako. Wine grapes with small clusters of conical shape, which weigh up to 300 g. The fruits are round, weighing 7-8 g, the skin is dense, the taste is pleasant. The variety is not affected by gray spotting, oidium, phylloxera.
- Pinot. An ancient French variety with small clusters in the shape of a cylinder. The fruits are medium, round, blue-violet, the juice has no color. Harvested medium or low. A variety goes to the production of champagne and fine wine.
- Krasnostop. Bred and grown on the Don. The bunch has the form of a cone, average density. The fruits are round, the flesh is mucous, it fades, the taste is slightly sour. It makes red or almost black sweet and table wine.
- Mavrud. The homeland of this variety is Bulgaria. The clusters are large, with wings, dilated at the base. The fruits are small, rounded, blue-purple, with a thick peel. Variety suitable for high quality red table wines.
- Alicante Boucher. French hybrid with small dense clusters. Fruits are medium sized, round, with dense skins, juice is red. The view is characterized by high productivity, suitable for table and dessert wines.
- Kakhet. It grows in Armenia, has clusters resembling a cone. with high or medium density, round or oval blue-violet berries have a light wine hue. The skin is dense, the inside is juicy, the juice is light. This black grape is always useful in industrial enterprises, it is used for the production of wines and cognac.
- Kopchak. Moldavian grapes derived from the variety Serexia. The clusters are large, branching, with wings. The fruit is round, small, dark blue, the flesh melts, the juice is light. The taste is spicy, the variety is suitable for the production of sweet wines.
The benefits for the body from the consumption of red wines in moderation are almost the same as when drinking juice or fresh fruits. They are contraindicated only during pregnancy, because they harm the nursing mother and the baby. They say that the secret of long-livers of the Caucasus is precisely in the use of red wine. Only it should be natural and high quality.
Black grape varieties
There are many black grape varieties.
Table varieties have become popular in recent years. They have a rich and sophisticated taste. High-yielding and winter-hardy hybrids were bred, because grapes are cultivated in different regions. Some interesting varieties:
- Moldova, or the Black Prince. Late variety, which is harvested in the third decade of September. The berries are oval, with a plump skin and white pectin coating. Fruit length - 25 mm, diameter - 19 mm, weight - about 6 g. Sugar content is high, up to 20%, increases during storage. The pulp is juicy, with a plum flavor. The mass of clusters is 300-600 g.
- Kishmish, or black quiche. This variety is suitable for the production of raisins and fresh consumption. The berries are oval in shape with a flat base, richly covered with pectin, which gives them a blue tint. The middle is dense, fragrant, with a characteristic crunch. The clusters are medium, conical. The seedless variety, some fruits have small reduced seeds.
- Orchid. A super early variety that is suitable for growing at home. It is characterized by frost resistance and good resistance to diseases. The clusters are large, in the shape of a cone. The fruits weigh about 12 g, resemble fingers with a sharp tip. The skin is of medium thickness, does not crack. The pulp is dark red, juicy, crunches.
- Autumn. Late variety with large clusters, weighing up to 500-700 g. The flowers are bisexual, fruits are oval or ovoid, dark blue in size, size 27 × 22 mm. The pulp is dense. Productivity is high. The variety is prone to cracking, is affected by gray rot.
- Mercedes Ripens in the second half of August. The fruits are large, oval, painted black. The taste is sweet. The variety is a dessert table, has a low acidity.
- Moscow. Variety with high frost resistance and high productivity. The clusters are large, conical, often winged. The fruits are oval, with a wide base, there are 2-3 seeds inside, there are berries without seeds. The taste is sweet, the yield is high.
- Black crystal. This is an early hybrid variety, its ripening time is 90-110 days. The flowers of the vine are bisexual, the berries are shaped like an egg with a narrowed base, weigh 10-12 g. The bunch is large, often weighs more than 900 g.
- Widow. A new hybrid variety with large fruits, up to 20-25 g in weight. The fruits are saturated dark in color, have the shape of a regular oval. The taste is sweet, the middle condensed, crunches.
- Panther. Variety with large sweet fruits, their length is up to 35-40 mm, weight is more than 15 g. The shape is oval, the color is dark purple. The fruits are covered with white pectin on top. The pulp is full of juice, sweet, reminiscent of Moldova's inherent grapes. Bunches of moderate friability, weigh 700-1200 g.
- Kishmish Black Sultan. It is a seedless variety that ripens early. The fruits are spherical, slightly elongated in length, small, weigh up to 3 g, sweet in taste and juicy. A bunch is a cylinder or cone, dense, its weight is 300-700 g.
- Emerald. A variety with high productivity, 2-3 clusters ripen on one shoot, which weigh an average of 0.5 kg. The fruits are elongated, weighing up to 5 g, of a coal shade, with a soft skin and a crispy center.
- Cherry. Original grape with cherry flavor. The clusters are large, up to 1.2 kg. The berries are elongated, 36 × 22 mm in size, dark, ripen early. The variety is praised for its good winter hardiness.
- Magic. An early table hybrid harvested in summer. Bunches weigh 500-700 g, compacted. The fruits are large, ovoid, weigh 6-8 g, the skin is strong. The taste of pulp is sweet and sour.
- Baron. The ripening time of this variety is 120-125 days. The clusters are massive, weighing 700-900 kg, sometimes reach 2.5 kg. Fruits weigh about 7 g, dark blue, rounded in shape. The middle is crispy and juicy, with a spicy finish.
- Hope Azos. Variety with tall bushes. The clusters are loose or slightly compacted, their weight is 400-600 g. The fruits are elongated, each weighs 7-8 g, the taste is sweet and sour, simple.
- BCHZ, ChBZ or In memory of Dombrovsky. Seedless grapes with good frost resistance. The flower has both stamens and pistils, clusters winged, in the form of a cylinder, weigh up to 1.5 kg. The berry is round, dark blue, weight - 2.1-2.5 g. It tolerates transportation well.
- Lucy. Variety with female flowers, large conical bunches. The fruit is large, up to 8 g in weight, with a nosiform shape. The peel is dense, the middle is bright red. The fruits ripen in late August, do not crack and do not attract wasps.
- Husayn. Southern species growing in Central Asia. The clusters are medium, resembling a narrowed cone. The fruits are dark blue, oval, have narrower tips. The peel is strong, with pectin coating, the middle is juicy.
- Beak. Grapes with heavy shapeless clusters that weigh up to 1 kg. The fruits are hook-shaped, dark, weigh about 15 g, have a size of 36 × 22 cm, do not burst and are not damaged by wasps.
- Raven. Early grapes ripening in late July or early August. It is distinguished by massive clusters and large crunchy fruits, a dense skin. The taste is sweet, with a slight acidity and a silky flavor.
- Crimean. This is a table variety that is grown on an industrial scale. The clusters are elongated, cylindrical-conical in shape, sweaty, weighing about 300 g. The grapes have black berries, large, oval or ovoid in shape, with dense skin and juicy pulp, a small amount of seeds.
- Souvenir. Variety with high and constant yield. The clusters have a conical shape, loose, elongated, weigh 250-300 g. The fruits are large, ovate elongated, with a musky-thorny flavor.
- Rock. Winter-hardy variety with early ripening. Harvested in some areas, when the summer just passes for the second half. The clusters are heavy, up to 800 g. The fruits are oval, some weigh 30 g.
Black table varieties are very popular among gardeners. They are also grown on an industrial scale. Some are universal, used for wine production.
How to use black grapes
Black grape has useful properties and is widely used in various fields of the food industry. Some varieties are able to be stored all winter, so buying berries is easy throughout the year. True, their taste outside the season is not too good, and the price is high.
Dark varieties are used to make red grape juice. Less often they make raisins. Dried grapes are tasty, but inferior in appearance to white. Some varieties are well suited for making jams, preserves. They are actively used to decorate cakes, desserts.
Useful properties and the possibility of application are not only in the pulp. From the bones and skins make the extract used for aromatherapy. Seed oil is added to many cosmetics. It cleanses and moisturizes the skin, gives it elasticity, prevents aging and wrinkles.
The main direction of the use of black grape varieties is winemaking. It makes table, dessert and fortified red wines. Some varieties are suitable for the production of cognac. Less commonly, dark grapes are used for champagne. Also, berries are made from liquors, tinctures, grape vodka.