Varieties and features of planting winter onions
Winter onions are often planted in order to get turnips and feathers already in early or mid-summer. And harvesting can be carried out already when the first greens only appear in other areas. But in order for the plantings to survive the winter normally and shoot in time, they must be properly carried out. The cultivation of winter onions is not too complicated, but it requires certain knowledge from the gardener, as well as compliance with all the basic terms and requirements for planting material.
Selection of planting material for planting
There are separate varieties of onions that are used for planting in the winter. But before choosing which variety of winter onions to plant, you need to select the appropriate planting material. When planting before winter, two main cultivation methods are used. In the first case, selected bulbs are sown in the ground, and in the second case, sowing is carried out using seeds. There is a third combined option: seeds are grown from seeds, and already its bulbs are used as planting material.
Selection of onion sets for planting in the winter
With this method, onion sets are sown, which should already germinate in the spring. For growing turnips, onions should be selected whose diameter does not exceed 1 cm. There are not enough juices in them so that they can germinate immediately after planting in the soil. If the size of the planting material is larger and ranges from 1 to 2 cm, then it can be planted on the greens. Then the onion feather can be harvested in the spring, in May or even in April. Larger bulbs are only suitable for food.
But here a lot depends on the particular variety. In some varieties, sevka is always small, resembles small garlic in size. It is planted in its entirety, often without even going over it, and in other varieties the seed material is very large. And then you even have to take onions on turnips, whose size reaches 1.5 cm. In such cases, you need to focus on how big onions of each particular variety grow.
Selection of seeds for planting as winter onions
If it was decided to use seeds when growing winter onions, then there are two options for action. The first option is to grow winter onion sets by planting seeds in early spring and digging onions somewhere in August. The second option is to immediately sow the selected seeds in the fall, and in the spring already look after the full beds. In the first case, it is not necessary to sort out the planting material, it is only necessary to plant it, and then select the received plant according to the method that has already been described.
If you need to plant seeds immediately in the fall, then you should select a full-fledged planting material. The most common brute force method is immersing them in a liquid. In this case, hollow grains emerge, while healthy ones that can germinate drown. If chernushka (also called onion seeds) does not sink in pure water, then salt is added to it. To planting material survived the winter, it can be washed with milk serum. This substance forms a film on the surface that protects against external influences.
Targeted winter cultivation
If you want to grow varietal winter onions, then they get it in the form of seeds. Seed germination is somewhat lower and they are not always able to survive the harsh winter, so most gardeners prefer to plant seeds in the spring, get sowing from them by autumn and already sow it before winter. It is not difficult to implement such a method, but with it there are much more landings. Planting and caring for seed plantings are simple, and the returns are very high, you just need to plant everything in time.
And yet, how to grow winter onion sets? The timing of its landing depends on each specific region. For example, in Siberia it has to be planted a little later than in the south of Ukraine. You need to focus on the time when snow melts in early spring. As soon as the snow cover disappears and the earth no longer resembles a stone in the fortress, it is necessary to plant a chernushka. Shallow and wide furrows are made in the size of 1.5-2 by 5 cm. Seeds are densely planted in them. A small distance must be made between the furrows for weeding.
When the young onion has ascended, it is not necessary to feed it, it is only necessary to weed and water it on time. It is also advisable to loosen the soil constantly, providing plantings with a sufficient amount of air for further growth. This is the whole cultivation technology: in spring, plantings need care and watering, but not top dressing. Fertilizer before making a bed also does not need to be applied, and already at the end of July or the beginning of August it is time to dig up the obtained seed, then it must be sorted according to the method already described.
Autumn planting of winter onion sets
Landing dates depend on the local climate and what weather forecasts do weather forecasters. There is only one answer to the question of when to plant winter onions: it is sown 28-30 days before the cold snap begins. Strong cooling means frosts that turn into constant cold. But you can’t sow winter crops when the weather is warm outside. The maximum temperature acceptable for planting is 8–9 ° C, and preferably when the temperature drops to 5–6 ° C.
Onion sets for winter planting are sown on relatively cloudy days, but when there is no heavy rain or wind. Shallow trenches are made on the bed, up to 5 cm deep, into which the onion of winter onions must be planted. The distance between the beds is up to 20 cm. Sowing is calculated based on the size of the onions. The larger they are, the greater the distance between the furrows in the selected area. The same rule also works for individual onions in a row. Large bulbs are planted every 10 cm.
Tillage for planting
Winter onions should be planted where the soil is moderately loose and fertilized, it is desirable that it be a neutral level of acidity. In excessively acidic soil, unripe bulbs begin to rot and cannot reasonably ripen. This plant does not like a large number of weeds, so the bed will require additional weeding. Excessive soil moisture is also considered a drawback. The technology for growing winter crops is not designed for marshy soils, in which the bulbs rot long before full ripening.
We should also talk about fertilizing the soil layer when planting winter onions. This culture does not like fresh organic matter in the soil, since such top dressing serves as a hotbed of various fungi. In fresh manure, among other things, weed seeds remain that germinate earlier than the main crop, so it is better to fertilize the soil not before sowing, but about a year before the planting dates are suitable. otherwise, this sowing can only be a waste of time and energy gardener.
The soil must have a sufficient amount of potassium, phosphorus and nitrogen. You need to understand that an excess of nitrogen, for example, makes the rhizomes too soft, but it provokes the growth of green feathers, which is useful when growing winter crops on a feather. But if you need to dig a crop to get a turnip, then it’s better not to overdo it with fertilizers. When planting in acidic soils, it is worth adding lime or wood ash to them. The second option is preferred when the earth is short of potassium.
Care for winter beds
Winter onions, their planting and caring for them are inextricably linked. Immediately after the beds have been prepared, it is necessary to cover them with mulching material, which can protect against winter frosts. Winter onion sets are able to suffer from cold weather, so we must immediately decide what will be used as a shelter. Often, ordinary leaves of garden trees are taken and stacked on top of the plantings. But there is also a better option for leaving - to lay pre-assembled coniferous needles on the beds.
It is necessary to apply fertilizer under winter onions in the spring, and the first application is done shortly after the snow has melted and the ground is thawing. After this, the main care consists in timely watering and loosening of beds. If the sowing was successful, then soon after warming the first green arrows will appear on the beds, but pests will come after them, which will need to be fought. Moreover, the more delicious the variety was planted, the more it will attract various unpleasant insects.
Some gardeners ask how to plant winter onions so that they suffer less from insects, and is there any winter onion that does not attract pests. Unfortunately, these uninvited guests have to constantly struggle. Before planting, it is worth cultivating the soil with tobacco thrips, onion flies and nematodes, and in the spring - planting ordinary carrots near the beds. At the same time, you need to constantly monitor the status of your crops. Here's what they recommend about this in various forums of gardeners:
“Winter onions attract many pests when it begins to ripen. When the time for its harvest is approaching - and this happens in June or July - it is worth preparing for the invasion of insects. Of course, when we plant winter crops, we cultivate the land from pests before planting. But it is worth preparing such means as Medvetoks or Aktara for protection before harvesting. You can still make infusions from plants such as dope, bleached, marigold or alkaloid lupine. These environmentally friendly products have already proven their worth. ”
Different varieties of winter onions
Many varieties and hybrids were bred specifically for planting in the winter, and new varieties continue to appear, but not only specially bred onions are suitable for winter planting. Many sharp varieties can be perfectly used in similar quality. A number of long-used varieties have sufficient frost resistance for planting in the winter, and in the southern regions almost any onion can be used as winter crops. Here is an incomplete list of varieties that are often planted in the winter:
- Raider, aka Radar.
- Onion Helenas.
- Shakespeare variety.
- Onion Stuttgart Riesen.
- Siberian annual.
- Red (or Red) Baron.
- Variety Olina.
- Goliat (or Goliath, as it is sometimes called).
- Ellan (his name is simply Alan).
- White onion.
- Variety Centurion.
- Senshui eelou.
And this is not the whole list of varieties that are used for sowing in the winter. They differ landing and care, or rather, their methods. They also have a different appearance and, of course, taste. These varieties are spicy, while others have a milder and even sweeter taste. But the description here will not help: to see all these differences, you need to plant the desired variety, and then try the crop. Therefore, it is worth describing several of those varieties that are recommended by experienced gardeners.
Variety of onions Troy
This variety was bred in the Netherlands not so long ago, but it has already proven itself when grown on sites. Onion Troy is the so-called first-generation hybrid from which it will not be possible to obtain seeds. This variety of Dutch breeding is not distinguished by large rhizomes. A dozen medium-sized bulbs rarely weigh more than 1 kg, but it is resistant to environmental influences and is stored for a long time. And this despite the fact that the variety belongs to medium-sharp varieties.
The bulbs of this hybrid are round in shape, with smooth and dense shiny scales of a golden hue. They are very reluctant to shoot each other. For this reason, Troy has a long shelf life and excellent germination: onions do not start to leave in the feather ahead of time. It can be planted not only in the winter, but also in the spring. This variety does not suffer from fungal diseases and well resists various viruses, bacteria and pests. An excellent choice for both a beginner gardener and an experienced summer resident.
Another hybrid of the first generation, which, like Troy, was bred by breeders in Holland. These varieties also have a certain external similarity, but the Centurion has slightly more elongated onions, and its scales are lighter, with a bright straw color. The weight of one rhizome rarely exceeds 100 g, which is generally an average, but this is offset by the high yield and excellent germination of Centurion onions. It ripens in three months, therefore, in warm regions, winter crops are harvested in June.
Bulbs of this hybrid do not contain a large amount of moisture. For this reason, they are able to be stored for six months, and in suitable conditions this period may increase. The taste of the fruits is moderately sharp, so they are used both for salads and for the preparation of various canned goods. Due to the dense and durable scales of the outer cover, the onion retains its presentation for a long time, which simplifies its successful implementation. If you look at the reviews, it turns out that this hybrid is considered one of the most popular varieties at present.
Winter Bow Radar
Onion Radar, aka Raider, is another hybrid that is successfully grown as winter onions. This variety has one difference for which all knowledgeable gardeners appreciate it: it is resistant to very severe frosts, even against the background of many other winter varieties. The radar can withstand cooling to -15 ° C, and this is in the absence of snow cover. Under the snow, he is able to endure frosts even up to -23 ° С. These are very worthy indicators.
Frost resistance is not the only advantage of this hybrid. The mass of its bulbs ranges from 150 to 300 g, and in some cases can reach half a kilogram. They have a classic round shape and a golden hue of scales. However, they are able to quickly ripen. Some gardeners manage to harvest in May, when other gardeners are just beginning to appear greens. At the same time, Radar has a pleasant pungent taste, thanks to which it is successfully used in various cooking.
Onion Stuttgart Riesen
This variety was bred in Germany, but it is in no way inferior to the brainchild of Dutch breeders. This onion can be used to obtain green feathers, and for growing on turnips. And in that, and in another capacity, he shows himself perfectly. When grown on turnips, its yield is 4.5-5 kg per 1 sq. Km. m of beds, although much depends on the quality of the soil and the density of planting. Still, Stuttgart Riesen has a high ripening rate: 100 days pass from the appearance of the first seedlings to the harvest.
This variety is characterized by large bulbs, the mass of which varies from 120 to 250 g. They have a slightly flattened neat shape, dense golden scales and white flesh. They also have a medium-sharp taste, which is characteristic of many varieties of winter onions. The variety is resistant to a number of fungal diseases, in particular, to all varieties of powdery mildew. It is stored for a long time and retains its presentation, which is why it is convenient for growing, both for home use and for sale.
Shakespeare winter onion variety
This variety can be very successfully used both for planting in the winter and for classic spring cultivation. This hybrid belongs to ultra-early varieties. Its average maturity is 2.5 months, which is one of the best indicators in principle. As in the case of the Radar, a bulb crop can be harvested in May or early June. At the same time, the bulbs are very resistant to darting and will not germinate ahead of time, therefore this variety is excellently stored not only the crop, but also planting material.
The average weight of one bulb ranges from 80 to 100 g - an average indicator when compared with other varieties, but these bulbs tolerate frosts well and can withstand a temperature drop of -18 ° C. This is due to the strong and dense scales that make up the outer cover of the rhizome. These scales have a golden hue, while the flesh of ripened fruits is white.
Another advantage of the Shakespeare variety is that it does not require abundant watering.
Senshui eelou variety
Senshui eelou, or Senshui yellow, is a very convenient hybrid for growing, the distinguishing feature of which is the color of rhizomes. Its scales have a yellow tint with a brown tint that is easy to recognize in the photo. But Senshui is popular not because of the color of the bulbs. This variety has a fast ripening period - harvesting takes place already in mid-June, and in warm regions it can be carried out even in May, if climatic conditions allow. Moreover, this variety has excellent germination.
The taste of the onions is somewhat sweet, without pronounced sharpness, so they are convenient to use when preparing salads and other similar dishes. But there is one problem associated with this: Senshui has not the best shelf life - the bulbs are no more than 3-4 months old, after which they begin to deteriorate. But the variety has excellent resistance to disease, which has a positive effect on the harvest.
Ellan Winter Onion
This variety is one of the first winter onion varieties bred by domestic breeders. According to many gardeners, Ellan is perfect for growing in central Russia. При этом он может выращиваться при малой продолжительности светового дня, что и позволяет его сажать в некоторых северных областях. Средняя масса одной луковицы равна 110 г, хотя отдельные корневища могут достигать массы в 0, 4-0, 5 кг. Все зависит от условий содержания и некоторой удачи.
Корневища округлой формы, с плотной желтоватой чешуей, сладкие на вкус и без выраженной остроты, но из-за этого урожай не может подолгу храниться, поэтому его стоит сразу же реализовать или использовать в пищу, что несложно, учитывая, что убирают репку уже в первой половине июня.
Сорта лука для посадки под зиму способны заинтересовать многих огородников и владельцев дач, ведь их выращивание не требует больших затрат времени и денег, а урожай легко реализовать, да и по вкусу они ничем не уступают яровым сортам.