Varietal features of the apple tree Zhigulevskoe
Zhigulevskoe, a quick-growing and productive apple tree, was obtained by crossing two varieties - the American Wagner prize and domestic Borovinka vulgaris. This tree, which is resistant to diseases and colds, has become widespread not only in Russia, but also in other countries of the world.
Varietal features of the apple tree Zhigulevskoe
This culture was taken as the basis for the cultivation of new varieties - Malychenkovskoe and Utes.
- medium-sized tree - the maximum height is 3 m;
- intensively builds up young shoots - 20-25 cm per year;
- the crown is wide, pyramidal;
- leaves are dark green, oval;
- large snow-white flowers;
- the center conductor is thick.
The fruits of the variety have the following characteristics:
- large-sized, spherical-shaped apples (average weight - 150-300 g);
- on an oily peel there are small tubercles;
- two-tone fruits - yellow with red stripes and a bright red barrel;
- the flesh is tender, sweet and sour, creamy, with a fine-grained structure;
- the aroma is pronounced;
- balanced chemical composition - Zhigulevskoye apples contain a whole complex of vitamins and minerals. Calorie content 100 g of the product - 50 kcal.
Zhigulevskoe apple tree has poor winter hardiness, so it is advisable to grow it in the southern and central regions of the country (for example, in the Moscow region). The variety is most widely distributed in the Ryazan and Astrakhan regions, the Krasnodar Territory, and in the Middle and Lower Volga.
Advantages and disadvantages
Description of domestic culture includes several of its important advantages:
- early maturity and growth rate - the first crop appears in the third or fourth year of cultivation;
- high yield indicators - 7-8 kg of apples from one tree (peak yield falls on the tenth year of cultivation);
- the fruits have a presentation and excellent taste;
- increased resistance to scab and other fungal and viral infections;
- the fruits stay on the tree for a long time, during the harvesting process they are practically not damaged;
- the shelf life without loss of the original taste and presentation is 2.5-3 months;
- prolonged fruiting - 3-4 crops can be harvested per season;
- Ripening occurs at the beginning of September, and in regions with a dry summer - at the last decade of August.
There are also several minuses of the variety:
- low winter hardiness;
- exposure to sunburn;
- the Zhigulevskoye apple tree is often damaged by the moth;
- fruiting worsens with age - the old tree bears fruit every 2 years, the fruits are smaller.
Planting seedlings only in heated ground
The best time to plant this crop is the first or second decade of April. By this time, the soil will warm up well, all the snow will disappear and the threat of return frosts will pass.
Autumn planting of the apple tree Zhigulevskoye is suitable for the southern regions, because autumn is long in this territory and when planting in early or mid-September, the seedling manages to prepare for the winter colds and get stronger.
Selection of seedlings
For planting, it is better to use one- or two-year-old seedlings from the nursery. So you will be sure that this is a real variety. A grafted seedling with the following characteristics will be a good planting material:
- a well-developed, elastic root system with several fibrous roots at least 30 cm long;
- the bark on the central conductor and shoots should be smooth, without injuries and signs of damage by diseases and pests;
- the vaccination site should be healthy, evenly covered with bark;
- optimal height - 60-70 cm.
If you have a seedling with an open root system, then before planting its roots should be soaked in a clay mash (3 kg of clay in 3 liters of water). To restore the water balance, 5-6 hours of soaking will be required.
All roots that have broken off or are mechanically damaged must be cut with a sterile knife or secateurs. Places of cuts are powdered with charcoal.
Zhigulevskoye apple seedlings with a closed root system do not need preparation for planting, you only need to remove the protective material from the roots before planting.
Loamy earth with deep occurrence of groundwater - about 2.5 m is suitable for growing Zhigulevskoe apple trees. The tree grows well and bears fruit on fertile land with a neutral acidity level. For landing, choose a sunny place with protection from the winds.
All preparatory work for planting seedlings begins in early spring, two weeks before planting trees.
Dig a hole up to 1 m deep and 0.7 m wide. The excavated soil is mixed with a bucket of peat, 300 g of wood ash, 40 g of potassium chloride and 300 g of superphosphate. It is not recommended to use nitrogen-containing preparations during planting, as they can cause root burns.
The process of planting apple trees Zhigulevskoe consists of several stages:
- the bottom of the pit is sprinkled with broken stones, gravel or pebbles, in order to avoid further stagnation of moisture;
- then half fill it with prepared fertile soil;
- on the formed mound stack and level the roots of the apple tree;
- next to set a peg of metal or wood for support;
- sprinkle the roots with soil without fertilizer, ram and trample.
When group planting, observe the distance between the trees - 4-5 m.
After planting, 2-3 holes are dug at a distance of 50 cm from the stem and 10-15 liters of water are watered on the tree. In order to avoid drying of the earth and roots, the near-trunk zone is mulched with peat or garden soil. The tree is tied to a peg with a rope or twine.
When planting, it is important to observe one rule - you need to deepen the seedling so that the root neck is above the soil surface, otherwise the risk of rotting is inevitable.
According to the description of the Zhigulevskoe apple tree, it needs standard care, which is no different from other fruit trees.
In the first years of life, seedlings require a lot of moisture in order to quickly increase the aboveground and underground parts. In a dry summer, at least 5 waterings must be carried out. Humidification is carried out early in the morning or in the evening after sunset. This will prevent burns.
Additionally, in the evening, it is possible to sprinkle the crown, which will improve the decorative properties of the tree, nourish the aboveground part with moisture and protect it from the invasion of parasites.
Loosening and weeding
It is necessary to loosen the soil before each irrigation, which will increase its moisture and air permeability. Also, as the apple tree grows in the garden, weeds must be removed, which are an excellent environment for the appearance of various infections and pests.
To improve water access to the roots, gardeners make several holes with a crowbar at a distance of 50 cm from the trunk.
In the first two years, the trees lack those nutrients that were planted.
Starting from the third year of growing fertilizers, make according to the following scheme:
- in the beginning or in the middle of April the soil around the near-trunk circle is sprinkled with urea - 500 g of substance are spent on one tree;
- in the summer, when the active phase of vegetation begins, the tree is fertilized with nitrogen-containing preparations (azophos or nitrophos) according to the instructions on the package;
- at the stage of budding and fruit pouring, a complex composition of superphosphate and potassium salt (100 g per 1 m²) is introduced.
After each dressing, the garden is abundantly watered to improve the digestibility of nutrients.
Cropping and shaping the crown
The formation of the crown of the apple tree Zhigulevskoe is a mandatory care procedure that will help to create a decorative above-ground part, protect the tree from damage by diseases and pests, and also improve the quality and quantity of the crop.
- The first haircut of the tree is carried out immediately after planting - all branches, incl. and the central conductor, shortened by a third.
- The next year, they begin to form a crown - the central branch is cut 20 cm from the top, 3 of the thickest are selected from the skeletal ones, the rest are cut “to the ring”.
- In the third year, a second-order row is formed according to the same principle, only 2 branches are left in a row.
- Sanitary pruning is carried out annually (in early spring - before the start of sap flow). Cut the sick, broken by the wind and frozen twigs to healthy wood.
- A rejuvenating haircut is carried out for trees that have stopped growing young shoots and have begun to produce small fruits in small quantities. In this case, cardinal pruning is required - all 5-year-old branches “on the ring” are removed, and the young are trimmed a third of the length.
After each trimming, the places of cuts are sprayed with copper sulfate, and then lubricated with garden var. This will help to avoid infection of the wounds and contribute to their speedy healing.
This is a self-infertile culture, so it needs a neighborhood of pollinators. For this, autumn pollinating varieties are suitable, which bloom simultaneously with the Zhigulevskoye apple tree - Kutuzovets, Antonovka, striped anise, Borovinka.
When group planting, it is important to maintain a distance between the trees of at least 5 m.
Diseases and Pests
Apple trees require proper care
Variety characteristics include disease resistance, but in adverse weather conditions and in the absence of proper care, the tree is affected by several types of infections and parasites.
- Powdery Mildew Leaves and shoots are covered with a white coating, which eventually becomes wet and begins to decay. Cope with the fungus will help drugs "Skor" and "Topaz". Recipe - 2 ml of substance per 10 liters of water.
- Moth can destroy more than 50% of the crop. For prevention, double pollination of the crown with wormwood infusion (1 liter of grass per 5 liters of water) is required. The interval between treatments is a week. It is also necessary to regularly remove fallen leaves from the site, in which the larvae of the pest can live.
- The apple tree is subject to sunburn, as a result of which cracks and wounds appear on the cortex, into which harmful bacteria penetrate. Injured areas are cut with a sharp knife, and then treated with garden var. To avoid this, it is necessary to carry out regular whitewashing of trees (in spring and autumn).
- Hares and mice love to enjoy the bark of an apple tree. To protect against them in the fall, the near-trunk zone is wrapped with a fine metal mesh (netting).
Before the onset of cold weather, the tree needs good shelter. Autumn preparation consists in the removal of all damaged organs and treatment with garden var. Also, the near-trunk zone is whitewashed with slaked lime, and after drying, they are spud with earth. They wrap the stock with roofing material, a film or fir spruce branches to protect against freezing.
Harvesting and storage of crops
The Zhigulevskoe variety of apples is harvested in August-September. After harvesting, the fruit should lie down a bit to reach full maturity. The maximum ripening time after harvesting is 2-3 weeks.
The apples are easily removed from the tree, they are not damaged in the fall, which facilitates their further rejection and storage.
The optimum storage temperature of the crop is 0-4 ° C. Before laying in wooden or cardboard boxes, fruits do not need to be washed, otherwise they will quickly begin to rot. Each fruit is wrapped in thick paper.
The second option is to lay apples in layers. In addition, each layer is covered with hay, sawdust or straw. The room should have good ventilation and low humidity - within 55-60%. The average shelf life is about 90 days.
Types of rootstocks
Depending on the stock, this culture has several varieties:
- seedling. It has tall and late ripening - the tree gives the first fruits in the sixth or seventh year of life;
- medium tall. The tree reaches 3-4 m in height, the first fruits begin to bear in the fourth or fifth year of cultivation;
- half-dwarf. The apple tree is compact, three-meter high, but it very quickly ages and ceases to bear fruit. Requires anti-aging pruning;
- dwarf. The crown is small - up to 2 m in height. A tree with early fruiting (in the third year after planting). Seedlings of this type need support and very good care.
Growing in different regions
For the Moscow region, where the climate is mild, but cold winters are not excluded, this variety is ideal. The crop is ripening towards the end of September or the beginning of October.
In Siberia, they use a stanelike crown formation. All young growth is bent to the ground, fixed with brackets. The soil around the seedling is mulched with a thick layer of peat. To increase air exchange, the earth around the near-trunk zone is periodically loosened.
These measures will provide the tree with good frost resistance. Similar cultivation method and tree care rules are used by gardeners in the Urals.
Many gardeners fell in love with the Zhigulevskoye apple variety for its high yield, good keeping quality of fruits and excellent taste.
As practice shows, in regions with a cool climate, a tree gives no less number of apples if it is provided with thorough care and a good wintering.
Gardeners of the south note the frequent appearance of burns on the trunk and skeletal branches. In spring and summer, the tree needs good sun protection.
Harvest is severely damaged by the moth, so some prefer to grow other varieties of apple trees. Also, the tree grows old very quickly and begins to yield small fruits - another minus, because of which gardeners do not consider this variety to be one of the best.