The value of mushrooms in human life
Mushrooms are an important participant in the cycle of substances in nature, decomposing organic compounds to simple minerals and making the soil fertile. Representatives of this kingdom can interact with plants through symbiosis - mycorrhiza, without which the body cannot absorb water and phosphorus. Everyone needs to know what is the significance of mushrooms in human life.
The value of mushrooms in human life
People prefer to use mushrooms in cooking. Some types are delicious and cost a lot of money. The reason for the popularity is simple: they are useful and nutritious, rich in proteins and carbohydrates (which is why they are often called "forest" or "vegetable meat"), contain vitamins B, A, C, D and PP, contribute to the rapid absorption of food. The periodic table suggests that they include potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, sulfur, calcium, sodium, and chlorine.
It is not easy to choose the most delicious and healthy from the whole variety, therefore a special classification of 4 groups was created, starting with the richest and ending with the poorest representatives of healthy substances and taste:
- truffles, porcini mushrooms, mushrooms, mushrooms, mushrooms;
- boletus, boletus, throats, butterfish, champignons;
- mushrooms, valui, honey mushrooms, morels, russula, chanterelles;
- podgruzki, wet, raincoats, oyster mushrooms.
Of all these types, you can cook both simple and sophisticated dishes using a variety of culinary techniques, but gourmets around the world prefer the truffle because of its unique taste. This delicacy has long been a hallmark of gourmet restaurants, especially in France. He is wanted in deciduous forests, using the help of specially trained dogs and pigs, which can distinguish a delicate aroma. But they give preference to dogs - as it turned out, pigs are also gourmets and can, with an oversight of an escort, have a freshly-found truffle. Speaking of delicacies, it is worth remembering the role of some representatives of the mold, which are added to cheeses, which makes them expensive and tasty.
Today, a large number of mushrooms are grown in specially designed and equipped rooms, the climatic conditions in which are as close as possible to wildlife. Champignons and oyster mushrooms - a product distributed on store shelves precisely due to artificial cultivation. Scientists, interfering in the vital processes of fungi, are given the opportunity to discover their beneficial properties, to study structural features, to study interactions and to breed new species in laboratories by selection. Mushrooms are used in the agricultural field, using them as or as a part of pesticides.
In the life of an ordinary person, fungal cultures are of great importance: baker's yeast is used to make bakery products, beer and wine ones - to produce alcoholic beverages, kefir - to create kefir.
Irina Selyutina (Biologist):
The industrial use of yeast by humans is based on their ability to convert sugar into alcohol and carbon dioxide (it immediately decomposes to H 2 O and CO 2 ), as well as on their effect on cereals and dairy products.
Cultured yeast alcoholic fermentation, for example, for the production of beer is divided into 2 groups:
- Top fermentation yeast: the optimum fermentation temperature is about + 30 ℃. At the end of the process, they float to the surface and form a foam cap.
- Bottom fermentation yeast: fermentation occurs at a temperature of + 7 ... + 8 ℃ and they settle to the bottom, forming a dense precipitate.
In addition, the groups of these yeasts differ in the content of enzymes.
Recently, cheeses with molds have become popular: brie and camembert. Previously, the appearance of molds on foods was associated with unsuitability for consumption, but not with a pleasant taste. But everything is decided by chance. So it happened with expensive varieties of blue molds.
Mushrooms are used in folk medicine
The role of mushrooms in human life is great. Antibiotics are of great importance in modern medicine, they have their pros and cons. Few know that the substance, discovered in 1928 by Alexander Fleming, came from ordinary mold on a loaf of bread. Later, this genus of molds was called Penicillium, and the medicine of them - penicillin. Today, there are a huge number of antibiotics, which was the reason for their division into groups according to the nature of the effect on bacteria:
- bactericidal (kill bacteria);
- bacteriostatic (bacteria remain alive, but lose the ability to reproduce).
Mushrooms are widely used in folk medicine. Fungotherapy is a method of treating diseases based on the use of medicinal mushrooms and preparations from them. This method originates in the Far East and in the distant past of Asian countries, and involves the manufacture of decoctions, tinctures and various extracts while maintaining all the beneficial properties. Mushrooms contain a large number of immunomodulatory substances, which lead to a speedy recovery.
In the kingdom, Mushrooms are also found that pose a serious danger to life. The use of well-known hallucinogenic species of the genus Amanita or Psilocybe leads to the emergence of inadequate conditions in which a person is not responsible for his actions and can harm himself and others. Ordinary black mold, which grows in humid rooms, for example, in the bathroom, also harms health. When such a fungus enters the respiratory tract, symptoms of the following diseases appear:
- bronchial asthma;
Micromycetes also lead to other diseases: dermatosis, diseases of the nails, hair, oral cavity and genitals. Parasitic fungi cause mycoses.
Irina Selyutina (Biologist):
Parasite fungi are often the cause of human diseases. So, the achorion mushroom, settling on the scalp, causes a disease called scab. Sometimes it can affect dogs, cats, monkeys and much less often calves (skin, hair, claws, nails are affected). Trichophyton mushroom, which affects hair, nails and skin, is the causative agent of ringworm. The yeast sidium causes a disease of the oral cavity - thrush. A variety of fungal diseases, unfortunately, is noted by biologists, is not reduced, but rather increased.
Nobody is protected from them, because the sources of their distribution are water, soil, animals and people.
Eating many types of mushrooms protects the body, strengthening immunity, but there are varieties that significantly harm health, for example, parasitic fungi, following their nature, attack people with weakened immunity. It may not be noticeable to the human eye, but representatives of the Mushroom kingdom cannot be deceived.