Types of Wood Mushrooms
In eastern countries, tree fungi, which are parasites, are actively used for food. They have a special and unusual taste. Today, different types are added to oriental dishes: stews, side dishes, rolls, in the first and second.
Types of Wood Mushrooms
Tree fungus is a parasite, its spores, falling on a substrate, form a mycelium.
Over time, fruiting bodies destroy the substrate on which they settled - a tree or sawdust. Representatives have different descriptions:
- The black Chinese mushroom has no prominent caps and legs; fruit body is wavy, thin, resembles scallops.
- Shiitake in appearance are similar to champignons, only have a different color.
A feature that unites all woody Chinese mushrooms is the isolation of special enzymes that can split the tree and use this for the rapid growth of mycelium. This unpretentiousness to the substrate makes it possible to grow on an industrial scale.
The name "woody" received not a separate species, but their combination, parasitizing on trees and including representatives of different genera and families. Edible wood mushrooms include the following:
- tinder fungus yellow;
- tinder fungus orange;
- coral-shaped hedgehog;
- black moire.
Tinder fungus is common in temperate climates. In China, this fungus is used for medicinal purposes. Such mushrooms grow on the bark of trees, the fruiting body is flat and has the shape of an ear, no prominent legs. There are conditionally edible and inedible species. Do not eat Trutoviks growing on conifers, they are poisonous. Description of mushrooms:
- Coral hedgehog has more than one name: icy, white, royal, snowy, gelatinous. The fruit body resembles white sea corals. Grow on a woody substrate.
- Shiitake, aka Japanese forest mushroom, grows on dead wood. It looks like champignon, has a dark brown color with stains on the hat. Grows single. It has high taste.
- Muer (auricularis auricularis, Judas ears) is popular in China, Vietnam, Thailand. It grows on alder, has the shape of ears, the fruiting body is thin and black. Young individuals have a pinkish color and transparent flesh. There is a view in the Far East of Russia.
Dried fruits are often delivered - they are easier to transport and store. In addition, they retain the entire set of vitamins and minerals.
Useful properties and composition
The composition of different species is different. But they all contain the following elements:
- Vitamin D
Calorie content is low. Coral mushroom (blackberry) is considered a dietary product, it contains 70% fiber. In shiitake, only 34 kcal per 100 g, in tinder fungus - 24 kcal. Any mushroom is indicated for weight loss, because dietary fiber cleanses the intestines and creates a feeling of fullness. The pulp is low in carbohydrates and a lot of protein, which is useful for gaining muscle mass.
Mushrooms are good for heart
Dried wood mushrooms have the same vitamin composition. Before use, they should first be soaked. Given the presence of a complex of vitamins and minerals, fruiting bodies are useful for:
- Digestive organs and intestines.
- Blood vessels.
- Heart works.
- The brain improves concentration and memory.
- Strengthening the musculoskeletal system.
- Protect the liver from toxins.
- Lower cholesterol and sugar.
Scientists prove the benefits of fungi in radiation exposure, for the prevention of tumors and the treatment of diabetes. Hedgehog is used to prevent the occurrence of malignant neoplasms and their treatment. A large amount of water in its composition (60-85%) improves the hydration of cells.
Irina Selyutina (Biologist):
Studies of the composition of the coral-like hedgehog have shown that it can and should be used in medicine with success. One of its extremely important qualities is a positive effect on the nervous system. The results obtained by scientists of Germany in the study of the enzymatic broth of this fungus in the late 1990s. received erinacin E. This substance is considered one of the stimulants, and the strongest, for the growth of nerve cells (we remember from the school postulate: "nerve cells do not regenerate"). Therefore, blackberry is a potential medicine in the fight against Alzheimer's disease. To date, this substance has already been obtained in laboratories and work is underway to create specific medicines on its basis.
Muer - unique protein fruits that prevent the occurrence of obesity, anemia, hypertension (hypertension), a strong sorbent for poisoning. Shiitake are useful for respiratory organs, in Chinese teaching they are considered regulators of positive qi energy. Shiitake are able to remove toxins and even radioisotopes from the human body. Use them in the treatment of allergies, heart problems. Residents of China and Japan consider the mushrooms a kind of aphrodisiac. Shiitake extract is often added to anti-aging creams.
Wood mushrooms do harm:
- children under 14 years of age due to chitin content;
- people with individual intolerance, including allergies;
- patients with digestive problems, which makes it impossible to digest and assimilation of mushrooms;
- people of advanced and old age.
Most of the species are produced at enterprises, so do not be afraid of poisoning with such mushrooms. It is important to follow the instructions for use and storage. When collecting tinder fungus, the same precautions are taken as when collecting ordinary forest species. Dried wood mushrooms should not be bought with hands.
Use in cooking and medicine
Varieties of fungi parasitizing on a tree are used in medicine and cooking, their positive effect on the body has been proven by time.
The Chinese tradition has long used moer, shiitake, tinder for preparing soups, side dishes and other dishes. Coral mushroom is added to sauces and also eaten fried: it has a pleasant crispy structure and an unusual taste. Dried tree mushrooms are boiled, squeezed water and left in canned peach syrup.
In medicine, shiitake is used to produce lentian, which is the basis of commercial preparations in Japan. Lentil edible - this is what shiitake mushroom is called in science. It was this name that gave the name to the specific polysaccharide of these mushrooms - lentian.
If shiitake mushrooms are grown on whole wood (on specially prepared logs) - this is not food, but medicine, because mushrooms contain a lot of this polysaccharide. These fruit bodies are sent to pharmacies in Asian countries. But mushrooms grown on sawdust go to restaurants. They have much less lentian, but the mushrooms themselves are much larger and tastier.
In Chinese traditional medicine, tinctures, ointments, dry powders and extracts from dried tinder are prepared. Muer tinctures are known for their anti-inflammatory and wound healing properties.
In cosmetology, white coral mushrooms are used to make the following types of skin creams:
- anti wrinkle cream.
Now in European countries pay special attention to the cosmetological and healing properties of wood mushrooms. Did you know? There are very interesting ways to use these organisms. The violinist and violin master Antonio Stradivari made himself unique musical instruments from wood, which was depleted of wood mushrooms, the poet had better sound.
Any Chinese tree mushroom is cultivated around the world. And shiitake, and tinder, and muer are grown in special workshops on sawdust and logs. For the convenience of production (storage), wood mushrooms are dried. Pressed products are packaged and sold. Billets before use must be soaked in water for several hours.
Wood mushrooms grow in the East, are grown in mushroom-growing workshops around the world. They have a rich vitamin composition, so they are used in cooking, medicine, cosmetology. Dry fruiting bodies are the most popular form of storage and delivery, because they are not simply not devoid of healing and taste properties - they perfectly retain them in this form.