Types of Precious Orchids
Each Florist wants to replenish his collection with orchids. For the sake of beautiful flowers, lovers are ready to endure all the difficulties of care. There are orchids in which the leaves are valuable; they resemble precious stones. Species of precious orchids are rare and only among collectors.
Types of Precious Orchids
Types of Orchids
Precious orchids got their name thanks to the leaves combining velvet and a fanciful mesh pattern. The color of the leaves depends on the species and can be silver, light green, emerald, red, cherry and even black. The veins form lace of silver, gold, copper and bronze threads. These plants have a second name variegated.
Plants of the precious family produce loose inflorescences with small white flowers and a pleasant delicate aroma.
In nature, there are more than 220 species of variegated precious orchids. Of these, only 6 can be grown at home:
The flowers of a precious orchid of the genus Ludisia or Hemaria are very popular among flower growers due to their unpretentiousness. In the natural environment, the plant has the shape of a bush and reaches 15 cm. On each twig there are no more than five velvety leaves with olive or purple shimmer and flickering light veins. Their size is approximately 4 cm in width and 7 cm in length. On a high peduncle in winter, white flowers appear with a slight yellow tint on the column. Hold on for a long time. Strong rhizome is well developed. There are several varieties of Ludysia.
- Ludisia is colorless - reaches a height of 30 cm without a peduncle. Leaves are red-brown with pink veins.
- Ludisia Odin has dark black-green leaves with silver streaks.
- Ludisia Red Velvet has velvet leaves with pink stripes.
- Ludisia Green Velveteen has velvety dark green leaves with contrasting veins.
Precious orchid Ludisia is widely popular
The most popular type of precious orchid is Macodes petola. Its velvety leaves 7.5 cm long have a regular oval shape with a pointed edge. Light green, dark green, gray or emerald leaves are crossed by golden lace veins.
On high peduncles petola appears no more than 20 white-brown nondescript flowers. After flowering, the rosette dies and forms side shoots. With severe drying of the soil, the plant discards leaves.
The lesser-known Makodest Sandera reaches 15 cm in height and has large leaves, 15 cm in length, with copper streaks.
In home floriculture, a precious orchid of the genus Dossinia is represented only by a marble look. Plants reach 10 cm in height. Large fleshy ovate leaves with pointed tips have a rich olive color with a golden network of veins on the surface.
On a peduncle 30 cm high, brown flowers with a white lip appear.
A rare plant Gudayer grows up to 18 cm. Beautiful fleshy leaves are distinguished by a palette of green shades. Veins without metallic luster and painted in white, pink or blue. Outlets are stored for several years.
The best-known bristly Goodyear. Less common are creeping, fluffy and mesh.
Anectochilus orchid does not exceed 15 cm in height. The glossy surface of greenish-brown or green leaves of regular egg-shaped is densely covered with a network of golden or silver veins resembling cracks.
The plant forms a dense rosette with a high inflorescence in the form of a lush brush with white flowers.
The most popular varieties are Rectburgh anectochylus, striped, beautiful and royal. Less common is Sectimian anectochilius. It is worthy to take a place in the collection of the hybrid anectomaria, which does not need a rest period and certain conditions.
Growing Precious Orchids
To grow exotic precious orchids at home, you should know the features of care. On the windowsill, only precious orchids from the genus Ludisia will delight in flowering. The remaining species are hygrophilous, so a florarium or a closed aquarium is suitable for their breeding.
Precious orchids are ground cover plants, in contact with the surface of the soil, the stems root themselves, so they use shallow wide containers for planting. The holes in them should be located not only below, but also from the sides. For variegated plants, air access to the substrate is important. For Macaest Petola, a capacity of not more than 6 cm is needed.
Growing precious orchids with seeds at home is almost impossible.
Reproduction of precious orchids occurs with the help of shoots. When five leaflets and four internodes appear, a spine appears under the first leaf. As soon as two leaves grow under the root formation site and two internodes above, the shoot is cut off for rooting. The cut place is sprinkled with charcoal and placed in a special substrate for the genus Orchidaceae. The shoot quickly takes root and grows.
Line the bottom of the pot with a layer of drainage, a thickness of not more than 3 cm. Fill the container with half a substrate and place it in water for 2 hours. To disinfect, add a potassium permanent.
In water, with a sharp knife, cut off all dry and rotten roots. Sprinkle slices with activated charcoal and dry. Place the rhizome in a new container and sprinkle with fresh substrate. To evenly distribute the soil, shake the pot. Cover the top layer, previously soaked for 1.5 hours in warm water, with moss. Remove the transplanted plant for 5 days in a warm place with constant humidity, without drafts.
To grow exotic precious orchids at home, you should know the features of care
The extract for precious orchids should let moisture and air through well. Consists of riding moss, leafy soil, pieces of pine bark and charcoal, coarse sand and perlite. For disinfection and softening, moss and pieces of bark must be soaked in boiling water. After planting an orchid, the surface of the soil is covered with sphagnum moss.
The flowering of precious orchids occurs in the autumn-winter period. In young plants, it is recommended to remove peduncles, because during flowering, the stem lengthens, and the lower leaves give off nutrients and die off. After flowering, plant growth stops for a while.
Precious plants are representatives of the tropics; therefore, they are shade tolerant. Florists recommend finding a place in the apartment where direct sunlight does not fall, for example, windows facing north, west or east. Makodez and goodyear grow well under twelve-hour artificial lighting, the distance from the phytolamp should be at least 30 cm. They are grown in shaded places or in the bathroom. Lack of light leads to elongation of plants and the formation of a large space between the leaves. With good lighting, the plants will be squat with small stems and internodes.
Precious orchids feel great at room temperature. However, they do not tolerate cold snap up to 18 ° C and tolerate heat very well. Lowering the temperature leads to premature flowering and loss of decorative leaves.
Peduncles will last longer if during the flowering period to maintain the temperature within 20C.
Orchids of the genus Ludisia prefer to lower the night temperature by 4 ° C.
After flowering, anectochilius needs a dormant period, for this it is recommended to lower the temperature by 2-4 ° C for the winter.
Watering and humidity
In caring for precious orchids, important components are watering and humidity. These plants require intensive irrigation at short intervals. Drying of the soil should not be allowed even in the middle part. Plants grow well with constant medium-high humidity of the substrate. Watering is done either by the classical method, or by saturating the soil when immersed in water. So that the moisture does not stagnate, it is necessary to fill the pot by a third with drainage - pieces of polystyrene foam or expanded clay. To remove salts, water is recommended to boil or filter, it is preferable to use melt and rain water.
Orchids require intensive irrigation at short intervals.
In the florarium, air humidity rises due to evaporation from the soil, so watering is done once a week.
In cold weather, irrigation is adjusted as the soil dries, and for anectochilius it is halved.
Fertilizers for precious orchids are applied along with water during irrigation. A similar procedure is recommended to be carried out in the spring and summer once every 3 weeks, and in the cold season once every 5 weeks. The recommended dose is recommended to be divided into three times and introduced gradually, this optimizes the accumulation of nutrients and promotes the formation of spectacular greens.
Diseases and Pests
Precious orchids are susceptible to disease. The uncontrolled development of moss will lead to stem rot. They fight it only with the help of an urgent transplant with scalding the soil. To combat fungal infections, the affected leaves are removed and sliced with powdered charcoal.
Lack of moisture leads to wrinkling of leaves and shoots. With a sunburn, a local spot forms.
If the moisture of the precious plants is disturbed, a spider mite appears on the leaves. Carefully treat the plant with alcohol, turpentine, or finely chopped garlic and onions.
Infection with a mealybug is manifested by the formation of dirty white fluffy lumps on a plant. It is recommended to treat it with ethyl alcohol, Neem tea tree oil, garlic gruel and place the plant in a tightly tied bag for a couple of days.
Blackening of the soil and reddening of the tissue around the pests indicates infection with the scab. The plant is treated with alcohol, machine oil, vinegar or kerosene and washed off after 3 hours.
Pest Control Methods
Whitefly attack is manifested by egg laying and the formation of a sticky coating on the inside of the leaves. In the fight against it, they use adhesive tape for flies and thoroughly washed under a stream of warm water.
Infection of aphids is characterized by the formation of whitish scales, discoloration and falling of leaves. It is recommended to spray the plants every day with an infusion of sharply smelling herbs, for example, tobacco crumbs, needles, citrus peels, onions or garlic.
When using self-prepared soil, there is a risk of infection of plants with nematodes, snails and slugs. They lead to infection of the stem. To combat this problem, shoots are cut and slices are processed with subsequent transplantation.
In order to avoid infection by diseases and pest attacks, preventive measures should be taken.
- The acquired plants should be quarantined for at least 10 days.
- Avoid large clusters of plants on the windowsill.
- Observe temperature conditions and soil moisture.
- Ventilate the room regularly. Avoid damage during transplantation.
- Carefully choose soil and fertilizer.
- Use sterile pots and tools.
With proper care, indoor precious orchids will delight you with their unusual appearance for a long time and will become a wonderful decoration of any room.