Types of mushrooms of Karelia in 2019
Ecotourism, developed in the territory of Karelia, involves acquaintance with the natural heritage of the region, among which there are gifts of forests. Mushrooms of Karelia in 2019 are one of the most delicious and valuable fruits that are harvested right up to severe frosts. You must know the name and description in order not to stumble upon a deadly poisonous mushroom.
Types of mushrooms of Karelia in 2019
The land is located in the northern part of our vast country. It so happened that this region is characterized on the one hand, not frosty wet winters, but on the other hand, a moderately warm summer. Due to its proximity to the sea, high humidity is kept. These factors together are extremely favorable for fruit growth. Also important:
- Water system: in Karelia, about 27, 000 rivers flow and 60, 000 lakes are located, near which there is a high probability of finding prey in a basket.
- The abundance of natural forest plantations: they occupy 85% of the territory. Coniferous forests prevail: pines, spruces, cedars.
Along with picking mushrooms, a berry also comes across. Known Karelian lingonberries, blueberries, blackberries, cloudberries, blueberries, cranberries. There are also hazel, hazelnuts and wild raspberries. Abundant humidity and vegetation make the region favorable for the growth of edible and poisonous mushrooms.
Description of Edible Mushrooms
Today 270 species have been recorded in the region, of which 23 are on the verge of extinction. Many edible species are classified by condition of edible conditionally, or 3 categories. They require a special long-term treatment, in case of its absence, their use in food threatens with eating disorders.
The most collected species:
- wild boletus and pink;
- moss fly;
- honey agaric;
- morel conical.
White mushroom is common in deciduous and mixed forests. The hat reaches up to 20 cm in diameter, and the leg is up to 12 cm high. The shape of the leg is cylindrical, expanding downward. The hat is open, the edges are slightly bent down. Color differs from type: brown, brown-cherry, brown. Leg and pulp inside are always white. In Russia, there are about 18 subspecies. White spruce and pine are common in Karelia, and a white birch mushroom is also found.
The birch bark has a hat of a color from white-gray to brown. On the stalk characteristic dark scales are arranged in the form of vertical longitudinal lines. In representatives of the species Pereberezovik, the pinkish color of the pulp changes during the break from white to pink. Marsh boletus lives in moist places. It is completely white with a grayish tint. The leg is rough, with light furrows.
Irina Selyutina (Biologist):
Swamp birch bark forms mycorrhiza with birch trees. It is found in birch and mixed forests, where they have moist mossy places. According to the edibility scale, it belongs to the 3rd category due to excessively loose and digestible pulp. Therefore, it is not pickled, but used immediately. It is recommended to collect only young specimens.
The Karelian Republic provides an opportunity to collect different types of boletus. He has a pillow-shaped soft hat, the leg is long. The color of the hat depends on the type: from brown to yellowish. Sometimes it reaches 30 cm in diameter, but the taste is better in young individuals. The leg is white, covered with dark gray scales.
Lactation refers to conditionally edible fungi, but is very popular in the northern latitudes. Young individuals are suitable for drying or pickling. There are several species that differ in the features of their "appearance." White breasts are distinguished by a recess in the center of the cap, frequent plates and white pulp. With a break, the white flesh gives off a white milky bitter juice, which, upon contact with air, acquires a yellow-green color.
Oils are characterized by a mucous shiny coating on the hat. She has the shape of an inverted deep saucer, the color is brown or brown. A film ring is preserved on the leg, which distinguishes a true mushroom from poisonous counterparts. They grow in groups under spruce trees. Gathering them, be prepared when you come home to wash your hands for a long time. Therefore, take gloves with you to the forest.
Forests of Karelia are rich in mushrooms
Chanterelle is known to many for the characteristic color of the fruiting body and the characteristics of the pulp, which is practically inaccessible to insect larvae. Distributed in all regions, not whimsical to conditions. In older individuals, the flesh is elastic and harsh.
The flywheel is not considered particularly tasty here, but is harvested for pickling and pickling. This is a small view with a hat up to 8 cm. The hat is flat, the edges are down. Its color is gray-brown or gray-yellow. The leg is long, pale yellow or orange. Appears in mid-summer.
Honey mushrooms grow on tree stumps and bark. Grow colony (5 or more individuals). These are fruits with a small conical hat and a long leg. An adult has a film ring on its leg. Fruits in early spring (early Moss) and until late autumn. Fruit bodies freeze, but do not lose taste.
Morel conical is considered a delicious sight. Its appearance is unusual:
- Conical hat of great height, with characteristic convolutions and grooves. It looks like a porous fruit.
- The leg is cylindrical, more than half closed with a hat.
- The cut is porous pulp.
Morel fruits from May to July. Finding it is not easy and easy to confuse with a line - outwardly it looks like a gourmet look, but less tasty.
Irina Selyutina (Biologist):
To never confuse morels with lines, you need to remember several features of lines:
- At the line, the hat does not form cells. In appearance, it is vaguely reminiscent of the brain or the surface of a peeled walnut, i.e. has the same convolutions and waves.
- The stitching hat is not symmetrical and does not grow together with the leg.
- The stitch of the stitch is slightly shorter (3-5 cm) and its thickness is approximately the same in different species (about 5 cm). She often has a swelling at the base, uneven. Sometimes the leg is completely absent.
- The line has a body inside the partition and gyrus (it is not hollow).
Morel grows in Karelia in pine and spruce forests.
List of Poisonous Mushrooms
Hazardous to human health can be representatives of poisonous species. Some of them lead to eating disorders, while others lead to severe poisoning.
Also easily recognizable inedible and poisonous species grow in Karelia:
- Fly agaric.
- Death cap.
- The pink trefoil.
- Bloody tooth, or Gidnellum Peka.
- False mushrooms.
- The web is especially special.
Since 2007, in the forests of Karelia there is an amazing view, called the Bloody Tooth. He arrived here from the south of Finland. For a very long time it was considered poisonous due to the extremely bitter taste, which persists even after the fruit body is completely dried. He has a flat, ragged white hat with red bulging drops that resemble drops of blood. They serve as a bait for insects, which the fungus uses for food, to compensate for the lack of nitrogen in the soil. They find it in forests and reserves near Kostomuksha, but it can grow in other northern regions. Because of the warm climate, discoveries of the Bloody Tooth are also expected in the southern regions of Karelia. Its fruiting bodies are used to produce natural dyes. However, Peck hydnellum can accumulate cesium-137 (radio cesium) in its fruit bodies, which is a very dangerous phenomenon, as this element is radioactive.
Map of mushroom places
The list of the most mushroom picking places in the Karelian region:
- Tiksha village;
- suburb of Petrozavodsk;
- Ledmozero village;
- Pryazha village.
In Tiksha they collect porcini mushrooms. It is enough to go into the forest for 5-10 km and you can pick up a basket of whites or butter. For loaves of different types go to Yarn. They also find a lot of butter.
In Borovoy they are looking for valuable morels and ordinary mushrooms. The surroundings of Petrozavodsk are rich in mushrooms and chanterelles. Flakes and redheads grow around Ledmozero. In Kem, in pine and spruce plantations, the collection of aspen trees is carried out, and in deciduous plantations they are collected on boletus.
Due to the special climatic conditions, many species of mushrooms grow in the region. Collect and valuable, and conditionally edible. Tiksha village, the vicinity of Petrozavodsk, the town of Kem are popular for collecting. Each mushroom picker in Karelia will find a fungus to its taste, and in 2019 the season will start from mid-August and will last until the end of September.