A tree from a New Year's fairy tale: Nordman fir in landscape design

Fir Nordman (Abies Nordmanniana) received a name in honor of Alexander von Nordman, a professor of botany, who first described this species. The plant has 2 more common names in everyday life: 1. Danish tree (it came because Denmark has been growing it for more than 200 years as a decoration for the new year). 2. Caucasian fir. The name is associated with the original distribution area.

A tree from a New Year's fairy tale: Nordman fir in landscape design

The tree is widely used in landscape design, since it does not require additional crown formation and complex manipulations during cultivation. It has been used as a Christmas tree for over 200 years.

View brief information

  • Color : green, green-white, emerald, gold ± depending on the variety.
  • Height : up to 50 m, annual growth of about 15 cm. At the age of 30 years, the height of the fir is about 10 m.
  • Crown width : up to 7 meters.
  • In which regions it grows : the west of the Caucasus, the southern regions.
  • Features of planting (crowding) : grows well in the sun, and in the shade, and in partial shade. It is able to grow both separately and in fir. The minimum distance to buildings and other sites is 3 meters due to a developed root system.
  • Immunity : strong, however, the plant becomes vulnerable to fungal diseases with improper watering.
  • Life expectancy : up to 700 years.

Common varieties

Nordman fir has four popular varieties: they create different compositions in the garden, and also combine with other cultures.

Golden spreader

Golden spider is often used in landscape design because of two characteristics of the variety: slow growth and color of needles. Over 10 years, the plant reached only 1 m in height, and in the future this pace will not accelerate. The needles are golden white.

The crown diameter will not exceed 1 m, in the center it has a clear notch. The needles are small, about 2 cm in length.


It has an unusual color of needles: on the top they are light green, on the bottom - white. The needles are long and soft.

It is characterized by rapid growth, not decreasing over time. The shape of the tree resembles a pear: an elongated top and massive lower branches.


An unusual variety, which is also called weeping pine. Pendula branches roll down, which makes the tree have a soft elongated silhouette.

It has an extremely slow growth rate and high requirements for care. Of all the varieties of fir, Pendula is the most vulnerable to adverse weather conditions.


This variety is practically no different from natural. However, it has a unique feature: in some growth conditions, the cones acquire a purple-violet color.

The plant is heat-loving, well tolerates both shadow and light, but it is extremely demanding on the level of humidity.

Growing regions

In nature, Nordman fir is found in the west of the Caucasus Range. And to this day, there are massive fir trees at an altitude of up to 2100 m. This plant can be found in Georgia, Turkey, the Russian Republic of the Caucasus, Abkhazia and Armenia.

The climate of Russia is not suitable for fir

It grows well in Denmark, as this country has a humid climate with mild winters and cool summers - ideal conditions for development.

In central Russia, fir is difficult to grow. The reasons are both low temperatures in winter and hot summers, poor humidity and gusts of wind.


From the moment of seed germination to the planting of seedlings in open ground, at least 7 years usually pass. According to experts, it is at this age that the seedlings begin to show sufficient resistance to adverse conditions.

Seedling Selection

When buying a seedling for your own garden, you should pay attention to certain signs. Description of quality:

  • planted in a separate container.
  • the root system is not exposed.
  • age from 5 to 7 years.
  • the needles are evenly colored, with no signs of fungus or rust.
  • needles are soft, but not slimy, with a strong coniferous aroma.
  • the needles are clean, without cobwebs or other inclusions.

The highest quality seedlings are sold in specialized nurseries. When buying a tree in them, you can choose the instance you like, and they will dig it out of the ground right before your eyes.

Site preparation

So that as the tree grows, it feels good, you should take care of preparing the right place for it.

  1. The soil should be slightly alkaline and light, fertile.
  2. The Nordmannians are indifferent to light and shadow, they grow in any conditions.
  3. Fir seeds or seedlings are planted at a distance of at least 3 m from other trees or large structures due to the rapid development of the plant's root system.
  4. In the fall, you can reorganize the proposed landing site to get rid of parasites and disinfect the ground.

Landing technology

For the seedling, make a depression of 80 cm wide by about 60 cm. It should be 25-30% larger than the size of the root coma. At the bottom of the pit, gravel or rubble drainage is laid, which requires an additional 10 cm from the depth.

To accelerate the addiction of the seedling, it is recommended to prepare the soil mixture from:

  • sand 15%;
  • humus 15%;
  • peat 40-42%;
  • clay 28-30%.

Complex fertilizer is added to the mixture. It is poured in a hole in a pit, after which the root system is distributed over it. Next, the recess is covered with soil and watered fir, the root neck - at ground level.

To improve the survival rate, the seedlings are shaded with a non-woven material. This is especially true for warm areas, where in spring the sun heats the soil very much.


A young tree needs to be protected from direct rays of the sun

Fir extremely dislikes transplants from place to place, so you should think about the design of the site in advance and determine the permanent position of the tree.

To protect the tender needles from the sun, on especially hot days, the fir is sprayed with water. It is better to share this early in the morning, when the heat has not yet begun.

The rest of the plant care is standard: watering, top dressing, cultivation and rare pruning.


Particular attention is paid to watering in the year of planting: its root system has not yet had time to strengthen in place and consumes little water from the soil.

Subsequently, the procedure is carried out twice a week with drought. If the weather is normal, then 2-3 times a season is enough.

In the spring, all firs are abundantly watered to provoke their joint awakening.

Top dressing

After the snow melts, young plants are fed a nitroammophos (40 g / m.sq.). You can use complex fertilizer on a mineral basis.

Adult specimens do not fertilize if the soil is fertile enough. With land poverty, every 3 years, in the spring, they are fed with special means for conifers.

In autumn, around October, the Danish Christmas tree is fertilized with potassium-phosphorus substances, regardless of age.

Mulching and loosening the soil

Mulching reduces the frequency of watering the plant. For it, use a mixture of pine bark and chips that are laid on the soil near the trunk. The height of the embankment is from 5 to 7 cm.

Loosening the earth provides access to oxygen and destroys the parasite larvae. It must be carried out in spring and autumn with a preventive purpose.


This type of fir has a dense crown with a pronounced shape, so it does not need decorative pruning.

Dead branches are removed before the kidneys spill, frozen - at the end of May, when there is no risk of freezing frost.

Winter preparations

The Nordmanniana measles fir system has high winter hardiness: they withstand temperature drops of -30 °. At the same time, young shoots freeze already when they fall below 15 °.

In order for the plant to tolerate winter normally, it must be properly prepared.

  1. Cover branches with spruce branches. A special non-woven fabric is also suitable. Shelter is not removed until the weather is firmly set.
  2. In the middle lane, it is recommended to additionally close the tree trunk circles. This is done with mulch, which is poured up to a height of 10 cm.


A tree propagates exclusively by seed.

Nordman fir propagates exclusively by seed. Their stratification is carried out 2 months before landing.

In nurseries, the seeds are planted in containers and cleaned in a cool place - a cellar or a special refrigerator. In spring, they germinate in warmth, after which the seedlings dive into larger pots.

You can try to independently propagate the plant using seeds. They are taken out of the cones and placed in the ground in the fall. To harvest seeds, unopened cones are harvested until September.

According to the descriptions of gardeners, when planting seeds, the percentage of germination is extremely low.

Diseases and Pests

Fir is resistant to diseases. But under adverse growth conditions and excessive humidity, rust appears. At the first signs of illness, the plant is treated with a solution of copper sulfate.

When a fungus arises, the needles turn yellow and crumble at a high speed. If left untreated, it provokes the development of fusarium and brown shute. To prevent the tree is not deepened during planting and treated with fungicides in a timely manner.

Prevention is carried out annually in April. To do this, use 1% Bordeaux liquid.

Of the pests it is worth fearing:

  1. Fake shield. Signs: drying of needles, the appearance of copper drops on it. Drive away mechanically: set traps impregnated with special glue from the track.
  2. Spider mite. Signs: large clods of cobwebs between branches, yellow and brown spots on needles. Method of control: spraying the tree with garlic and dandelion infusions. It should be borne in mind that dwarf trees are much easier to cure than large ones.
  3. Hermes. Signs: white coating on the needles. The fight is carried out using strong insecticides, it is desirable to cut off the affected areas.
  4. Fir moth. It is poisoned with biological products, to prevent the appearance of larvae, the earth is dug up every spring and autumn. When hatching young caterpillars, the tree is treated with drugs.
  5. Caterpillars of pine cone. Signs: natki resin, pineal brown excrement of insects. Fighting is done with drugs.

Use in landscape design

The advantage of coniferous plants landscape designers call not only easier care, but also the preservation of needles. In winter, among bare deciduous trees, spruce and pine will be a real outlet for the eyes.

Nordman firs are widely used in landscape design, but different varieties have found different uses.

  1. Golden spreader. The dwarfism and golden color of the needles made this variety extremely popular. It is planted mainly in the southern regions, decorating alpine slides.
  2. Jadwiga. When planting, it should be borne in mind that trees grow quickly, without slowing down with age. This plant needs a lot of space. The needles of Jadwiga are very beautiful, light green above and white below. Suitable for landscaping parks.
  3. Pendula. Due to the specific looking branches, landscape designers advise using this variety with caution. Excessive planting can bring the garden a somewhat dull appearance, so Pendula is diluted with plants with bright leaves or needles.
  4. Borjomi This variety makes sense to plant only in those regions where the cones can show their unusual color. However, even with brown fruits, fir looks pretty good.

Good neighbors for the Danish Christmas tree will be larch, mountain ash, juniper, thuja and pine. You can also plant Thunberg barberry and spruce.

Norman Fir for the New Year

Fir can stand indoors for up to 10 weeks

It is not for nothing that Nordman fir is called a Danish Christmas tree: the climate of Denmark turned out to be so good for this plant that this country has been growing and supplying the best samples of fir trees for Europe for the new year for more than 200 years.

They love her because she:

  • possesses emerald needleless needles;
  • able to stand indoors in a pot for several months;
  • has a regular conical shape.

How to save

In the New Year, the living tree brings an indescribable feeling of celebration and fills the house with a fresh coniferous smell. To extend the life of a festive beauty, experts recommend:

  1. Buying it not indoors, but at street exhibitions - so it will last longer thanks to fresh air.
  2. The trunk is placed in a pot with a special mixture: 3 tbsp. l glycerin, sand, water. So much water is required for the sand to become wet. Fir in water will stand less.

If you notice that the needles are sharply yellowed, then you can try to reanimate the tree: spray it abundantly from the spray gun. If you do not use paper toys to decorate fir, then you can moisten the needles every day to keep it longer.

How much can not crumble

A cut Caucasian fir can stand without shedding needles for up to 10 weeks. The main difficulty is to determine the time for cutting: in the bazaars and markets often indicate incorrect information.

To be sure of the timing, it is recommended to buy a New Year tree in specialized nurseries. This decision has another significant plus: only there, fresh fir and spruce retain their coniferous smell.


Nordmann fir reviews are positive: the tree has a beautiful appearance and does not require special care. It is chosen for tightly set needles and intense color of needles.

However, experts note that the culture is extremely sensitive to air pollution. Therefore, it is not recommended to plant it near large cities: in the same suburbs, it can feel bad.

When using the Danish Christmas tree as a symbol of the new year and Christmas, it gives only a positive assessment. Nordman's fir has not crumbled for a long time and looks “like a fairy tale” due to the thick emerald needles and the correct shape of the crown.

Strong branches allow you to hang a large number of jewelry on them, and there is a tree in the room without shedding needles up to 10 weeks from the moment of cutting. It should be remembered that it is best to buy it in nurseries: so the price will be lower, and the plant will be better and fresher.

The only thing that confuses buyers is the price, which can reach 2000 r. But at the same time, many agree that a sense of celebration and a magnificent appearance are worth the money.


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