The treatment of rust spots on the leaves of apple trees
Rusty spots on the leaves of the apple tree appear quite often. This phenomenon most often occurs due to the development of a fungal infection, or rather, rust. The advice of experienced gardeners will help you figure out how to deal with this.
The treatment of rust spots on the leaves of apple trees
There are several reasons why the leaves of the tree are covered with a red spot:
- Often this happens due to an illiterate planting of seedlings - next to coniferous varieties (in particular, with juniper - this plant often suffers from a fungal infection and is its carrier). Spores of the fungus with the help of wind are quickly transferred to nearby trees.
- Lack of nutrients in the soil is another reason for the appearance of rust on the leaves of apple trees. Typically, this phenomenon occurs with a deficiency of trace elements (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, boron, manganese, iron or copper).
- Weak-immune plants that grow in a neglected and weedy area also often rust.
Most affected by this infection are the gardens of southern, southwestern, southeastern Ukraine and Crimea, where there is a high air temperature and arid zone. Such an environment is favorable for the appearance of this infection.
The peak of sore development occurs in the last month of spring or the first month of summer, when the leaves bloom and develop rapidly on the trees.
First, small yellow-green spots appear on the surface of the leaf plate, then they cover the entire leaf and darken, gaining a rich red color.
The fungus sucks out all the juices from the aerial parts of the plant, affecting not only the leaves, but also shoots, flower buds, and ovaries. At an advanced stage, the infection spreads to the bark of the trunk.
If you do not take the necessary measures for treatment, the tree ceases to grow, bear fruit, and after a while dies.
Rust on the leaves of an apple tree is treated with some chemicals.
The traditional copper-based product is Bordeaux mixture (1%). The procedure for spraying with this substance is carried out only after the positive temperature stabilizes in the street.
Do not use this product in hot weather, as trees can get severe burns.
Other modern drugs are also used:
- Blue Bordeaux is an analogue of Bordeaux fluid. Granular, highly soluble in water, contact fungicide, capable of completely destroying fungal spores in affected areas of the tree. This tool can be used in cloudy, damp weather, as well as before and after rain.
- Abiga peak. Contact copper-based fungicide, has good adhesion to the treated surfaces, while not penetrating deep into the tissue. The recipe for cooking is simple - 50 g of the substance is dissolved in 10 l of water. It is necessary to apply only in dry and calm weather.
- Kuprosat. This drug is made on the basis of two components - nitrogen and copper acetate. This is a universal fungicide, used both for treatment against fungal infections and fertilizers in fruit crops. For spraying, a weakly concentrated solution of 0.25% is used.
- Champion. It is no longer used for therapeutic purposes, but for preventive purposes. After spraying, this tool creates a protective film on the shoots, trunk and leaves of the tree, which prevents infection with rust. On diseased specimens, this remedy is able to stop the spread of infection, but it does not have a therapeutic effect. For spraying, a solution of 60 g of the drug and 10 l of water is prepared. For processing, choose a cloudy day with a temperature of no higher than 25 °.
Treatment will help get rid of the disease
If leaves, shoots, apples and flowers are covered with rusty spotting, a solution of colloidal sulfur can be used for treatment. It is prepared as follows - 40 g of powder is dissolved in 10 l of water.
The effect of action occurs upon contact with the infection. It can be processed at any stage of the growing season, except for the flowering period.
The analogue of colloidal sulfur, the drug Cumulus, also has the same effect. It is also dissolved in water according to the instructions on the package.
Other systemic contact fungicides also help fight rust:
- Strobes (2-3 g);
- Topaz (2 ml);
- Polyram (1.5-2.5 mg);
- Tsineba (40 g);
- Vectra (2-3 g).
This amount is designed for a solution of 10 liters of water. These drugs give a positive effect in the treatment of concomitant diseases of apple trees - scab and powdery mildew.
To obtain an environmentally friendly crop, many gardeners prefer biological agents. These are non-toxic substances developed on the basis of effective microorganisms.
The duration of protection after processing them is 20 days. Spraying can be carried out at any stage of growth and development - until the harvest.
The greatest effect is achieved at street temperature (within 12-18 °). It is also important to observe all proportions during the preparation of the working solution, which are indicated on the package.
The most common means are:
- Gamair (bactericide);
These are universal drugs that not only kill a fungal infection, but also many pests of the apple tree.
All diseased leaves must be removed.
Gardeners use several techniques for processing apples from rust, each of which differs in its complex composition.
Usually, therapeutic measures are carried out before or after flowering, so as not to destroy beneficial pollinating insects:
- At the beginning of the growing season, the crown is sprayed with Bordeaux liquid (1 or 2%). In the budding phase and after the tree fades, they are treated with the same substance, but in a lower concentration (1%). The last irrigation of the crown is carried out during the period when the apples are poured.
- The second technique is carried out in the same phases, only with the use of other drugs - the first time they are sprayed with copper sulfate (1%), the second time with copper chloroxide, Ordan or Oksikhom. You can also use Abiga Peak. The third time the crown is treated with Bordeaux liquid 1% or Cuprosil. To achieve the desired therapeutic effect, some gardeners carry out another control irrigation after 10 days with a Bordeaux mixture (1%).
- The fungicide Topaz showed a good result in the treatment of rust on apple trees. The crown is processed three times - at the stage of blooming of vegetative buds, after flowering and during the period when the apples grow.
- The first and second spraying is carried out with a solution of Bordeaux mixture or preparations Champion, Kuprosil. For the next irrigation, a solution of colloidal Sulfur or Tiovit is used, the last treatment is carried out with Propi plus.
Regardless of the treatment scheme chosen, first remove all damaged organs on the tree and burn them. So you can prevent the further spread of the infection to healthy plants.
For prevention, a healthy garden should be treated with Kuprosat in early spring until the buds open and in late autumn after leaf fall.
In the summer, the apple trees are additionally sprayed with a solution of Bordeaux fluid, the drug Tsineb, Bayleton or Skor. Three times treatment is carried out - before flowering, after it and at the stage of fruit growth.
In addition to preventative treatments, simple growing rules should be followed:
- Plant trees away from conifers, which are a source of fungal infection.
- Observe the optimal pattern when landing, so that they have enough space for full growth and development.
- Keep the area clean - remove fallen leaves, carrion and weed in time.
- Plant wormwood in the garden, which prevents the appearance of a fungal infection.
- Every year in the autumn, dig a plot and spill the soil with a solution of urea (5-7%), copper sulfate (5%), ammonium nitrate (5-7%). When using drugs alternate.
- Trim the crown annually to avoid its thickening and the appearance of pathogenic microflora.
- To carry out complex and regular feeding, watering, annual whitewashing of the trunk and skeletal branches with slaked lime with the addition of clay and glue.
The appearance of rusty spots on the surface of the leaves of apple trees is caused by various reasons. It is not difficult to eliminate them - the main thing is to carry out preventive treatments in time, fertilize, water and properly care for the trees, then the percentage of infection with a fungal infection will be minimal.