Treatment of nodular dermatitis in a cow
Cow dermatitis, or tubercle, is an infectious disease and primarily affects the skin of cows. Dermatitis in cattle appears due to contact with a sick animal, but there are also cases of infection with tubercle through dirty equipment, clothes of farmers, blood-sucking insects or birds. How to treat cows nodular dermatitis depends on how the disease is started and in what condition the cattle is in.
Cod Nodular Dermatitis
Also, nodular dermatitis in a cow can appear even after the individual has been removed from the veterinary register. Because of this feature, outbreaks of infection can occur in a herd at different times and in different individuals. To prevent the spread of foci of infection, you need to keep the individual in quarantine, even if it has normal tests and the disease is completely cured. The fact is that tuberculosis bacteria remain active for some time and can infect other individuals in the pen. Such a disease is registered in different climatic conditions, but most often in hot climates, so nodular cattle dermatitis in the Krasnodar Territory is not uncommon.
Also, the disease was recorded in many southern regions: in Dagestan, South Ossetia, Azerbaijan, India and other countries. In the heat, any bacteria multiply most actively, and a simple midge bite can lead to the fact that the individual will constantly comb the affected area and bring it into the wound and other infections. The main prevention against such a disease is compliance with the conditions of keeping and caring for animals, then many infections can be avoided.
Symptoms of tuberculosis in cattle
Cod nodular dermatitis can not be detected immediately, since the first symptoms, if they are noticeable, only after a few days after infection. Most often, bumps on the skin in cattle appear one week after infection, but the reference materials indicate a period of 2 days to 45 days, so even during such a period of time the identification of such symptoms will indicate possible nodular dermatitis. The acute stage of the disease is characteristic mainly for young animals.
The main symptoms are:
- temperature 40 ° C;
- lack of appetite;;
- tear fluid oozes from the eyes
- seals on the skin in the form of small pimples;
- milk yield is reduced due to the general condition of cattle.
Such symptoms are characteristic of the initial stage of the disease. Also, in each individual, these symptoms can occur in a different form. The initial scars after some time change, the skin on the scars is separated from the outer layer. In the best case, a depression in the skin is scarred. Such particles can spread the disease throughout the herd. If the disease was diagnosed in a milk cow, then signs of tubercle can be found in milk.
The cow’s milk becomes thick, it becomes jelly-like during heat treatment, and its color changes to pink. Infectious dermatitis in a cow can be diagnosed by analysis and examination of the skin by an experienced veterinarian. You can see how nodular dermatitis looks in a photo or video.
The complex form of the disease
Sometimes the disease proceeds in a classic form, but it happens that cattle picks up acute nodular dermatitis. The treatment of dermatitis in cows in this case should not be delayed. This form of the disease is the most complex and requires complex treatment. Symptoms in the acute phase of the disease are similar to the classic manifestation of the disease. In the acute stage of dermatitis, most often cows refuse to eat and lose weight, the tubercles on their skin can have a purulent character and grow throughout the body. The virus affects not only the skin, but also the mucous membrane, leading to purulent inflammation.
Cattle can also suffer, due to the fact that the nature of the secreted saliva changes: it becomes viscous, with a putrid odor. This form can affect both calves and adults. What to do in this case? It is necessary to constantly inspect the livestock during feeding or care, and at the first suspicion of any disease, invite a veterinarian for further examination. A complex form of manifestation of tuberculosis can lead to the occurrence of subdermatitis in cattle when the skin near the hoof becomes inflamed, which leads to suppuration.
Nonclassical manifestations of dermatitis
Non-classical dermatitis in young calves can occur at any time. Basically, with this form of the disease, treatment is not always done on time. It is difficult for a specialist to diagnose this form of the disease, since calves may not have tubercles on the skin, and there may also be no other concomitant symptoms. Many farmers note that cattle with this form of dermatitis have loose stools and temperature changes.
There is also an inapparent form of the disease, which to a greater extent does not pose a danger to cattle. The only caveat is that carriers of this form of the disease carry the virus, which is released into the air and can become a source of infection for a healthy individual.
How to properly diagnose nodular dermatitis
Disease in cows dermatitis can mainly be diagnosed by biomaterial. The specialist takes a sample for biomaterial. Sperm, milk, purulent discharge, urine or blood may be used in its quality. Bacteriological culture is considered an effective analysis in order to find out if there are tubercle viruses. For an accurate study or in order to double-check the results, a sample of infected tissue is taken for examination. Recently, they began to conduct the latest method for the diagnosis of dermatitis - a bioassay.
By such a bioassay, the presence of the disease can be determined in almost any animal, even in rodents, which are one of the main carriers of the disease.
After the bioassay, the cow will have a reaction in the form of a seal at the injection site on day 6-8. In order not to confuse nodular dermatitis with other diseases, a veterinarian should be invited for examination. Do not self-medicate, even if all the symptoms scream that it is dermatitis. Many manifestations of the disease are somewhat identical, and the disease can be precisely determined only by the results of the analysis.
Dermatitis in cattle and its treatment should be diagnosed and carried out only by a veterinarian. Regardless of what types of disease were diagnosed, all measures must be taken to improve the condition of the animal. At the moment, no cure for tuberculosis has been invented, but the only effective method is the vaccine. Since there is no cure for nodular dermatitis, a timely vaccine provides good protection against this disease. Vaccination is carried out for all calves at the age of 2 months. The vaccine is most often done on a farm under the supervision of a veterinarian, and the drug is placed under the skin.
The vaccine gives stable immunity only for a while. Basically, immunity lasts no more than a year. After this, vaccination is repeated. If at least one individual is ill in the herd, it should be transferred to a separate pen for maintenance. It is also necessary to develop for her a special diet and vitamin top dressing. During the illness, the cattle body weakens and an integrated approach to treatment is required. If the cow refused to eat and lost weight, then try to restore her weight.
If the animal refuses to eat, then you can try to give your favorite food, perhaps this measure will improve the appetite. It is also necessary to provide a sufficient amount of clean drinking water. During cattle disease, vitamins A, B, C, D, E are most often lacking. It is important to consult with a specialist which vitamin supplementation is best to choose. In the room where animals are kept in quarantine, it is necessary to establish air ventilation and carry out continuous disinfection of all objects. A good bedding should be allocated to the cow and, if possible, fresh grass should be given. If the types of dermatitis are simple, then within 5-7 days the animal should recover.
Prevention of nodular dermatitis consists only in the timely formulation of the vaccine. Also, due to the fact that the disease can actively spread, all measures should be taken to protect a healthy population. If you worked with an infected animal or you have a suspicion that some individuals may be ill with something, then to find out these diseases, cattle must be isolated in a separate pen. Every time when working with a sick calf, bull or cow, care must be taken. All work equipment and clothing must be immediately disinfected.
You cannot go in the same shoes first to an infected individual, and then go to the corral to healthy animals. Every day, all rooms where animals are kept should be treated with disinfectants. Cows are not allowed to drink and eat from the same bowl. In order for the whole livestock to have stable immunity, it is required to give only high-quality and balanced food. Periodically, the herd should be fed with various vitamin and mineral supplements. Only in this case, animals will have strong immunity that can withstand viruses and infections.
What happens after a disease
Even if it was possible to cure tubercle, cattle regeneration of the skin can be observed at the site of the appearance of the tubercles. The more complicated the form of the disease, the more rashes on the body. In those places where there were tubercles, the wool may fall out and not grow for some time. Also, any disease can cause complications, adversely affect the body.
In order to somehow support the work of all organs, you need to gradually restore strength and take the herd out for a walk. As complications, there are frequent cases when bulls cease to be able to fertilize females. Cows can be diagnosed with inflammation of the udder, mastitis. As a prophylaxis, massage of the udder can be advised. If the diagnosis is officially confirmed, then the veterinary commission makes a decision on quarantine for a period of 1 year.
The farmer must comply with the following requirements.
- If there are animals in the herd who have been ill with dermatitis, even if now all the tests are normal, the farmer does not have the right to sell livestock and move the animals to any place outside the quarantined zone.
- The farmer has no right to sell the animal or use it in the meat or dairy industry. The milk and meat of these cows is considered infected.
- The owner of the sick cows must necessarily carry out a series of preventive measures to destroy flies, mosquitoes and other insects, which can be the source of the disease.
Proper nutrition during illness
If the animal got sick in the summer, then juicy and fresh food should be included in the basis of the diet, silage is considered their main component. Corn, sunflower, tops and meadow grass should be given. The daily norm is about 15-18 kg. If the cow refuses to eat or eats less, then you need to take action or so she will lose weight, milk yield will decrease. You can give root crops: sugar beets, fodder beets and carrots. It is very important to feed root vegetables, as this favorably affects the quality of milk.
Raw potatoes improve yields, so if you decrease them, it is recommended to give some potatoes. For one adult, no more than 10-12 kg of potatoes should go. A whole storehouse of vitamins is found in cabbage, Jerusalem artichoke and fish oil. Salt is given by cattle for any type of feeding at the rate of 10 g per 100 kg of animal. Concentrated feed is also given as feeding based on the productivity of the cow and its condition after the illness.
Veterinary Department Tips
Currently, active cases of the spread of the disease in the territory of the Krasnodar Territory have been recorded, so the Russian Department of Veterinary Medicine made a list of recommendations. It is very important to carry out measures to eliminate insects and rodents. In many farms, rats and mice walk in whole colonies. It is necessary to direct measures to destroy the carriers of infections. It is also necessary to eliminate holes in the room where cattle are kept. To protect against insects, you should install special mosquito nets on the windows, you must use electric repellents and do not leave the doors open in the evening.
Ventilation must be installed according to all standards, and also equipped with a fine mesh so that mosquitoes and midges do not fly from there. In unfavorable areas where such a disease is mainly fixed, it is necessary to control the animals and try to bring the situation to a new level, because if infected animals get to another compound, they can infect other individuals, and the virus spreads.
What should a farmer do
First of all, every farmer who does not want to incur losses due to a widespread infection needs to identify his livestock. The farmer must monitor the annual vaccination. For her, you can invite a veterinarian to the farm. When living in rural areas, it is very important to find specialized veterinary centers that should be located at least in large towns and villages.
In such centers they can explain and carry out the prophylaxis against various diseases of cattle. A farmer can also carry out a control slice using a bioassay. In Russia, nodular dermatitis is not uncommon, it is an extremely common disease, therefore, when deciding to breed and raise animals, you need to invest in them both time and money. Only then, with the right approach, it will be possible to protect the livestock from diseases and get healthy offspring.