Treatment of a bacterial burn of an apple tree
A bacterial burn of an apple tree is an infectious disease that can ruin an apple orchard in 1-2 seasons.
Treatment of a bacterial burn of an apple tree
Etiology and symptoms
The causative agent of a bacterial burn is a gram-negative motile bacterium, Erwin, originally from America.
Outwardly, it is single or grouped by the flagella rods size 0.7-0.1 * 0.9-1.5 microns, driven by flagella. It affects cultivated and wild plants.
Erwinia came to European countries by the middle of the 20th century. In Russian gardening, it was first encountered in Kaliningrad, Karachay-Cherkessia, Samara, Saratov, Tambov, Belgorod and Voronezh.
The hawthorn, apple tree, mountain ash, quince are susceptible to the disease, pear and dogwood show the least antibacterial resistance.
Infectious disease has characteristic signs that appear on damaged vegetative parts.
Under the influence of infection, the foliage between the veins is covered with necrotic foci of a reddish color, gradually spreading to the peripheral region.
In young processes, superficiality is observed. When the infection is activated, they wither, bending in the shape of a hook. The apple shoots burnt by the sun die off, remaining straight in shape.
Inflorescences and fruits
The burn covers inflorescences, which acquire a dark color and subsequently die. The darkened ovaries stop in development. Apples are covered with cloudy secretions - milky white, exudate brown in the air, subsequently mummified.
With a sunburn, buds and inflorescences do not change their color, and when infected with erwinia, apples and inflorescences do not fall for a year or more.
Bacterial bacillus hibernates in the affected wood, and with the onset of sap flow, in the spring, begins active reproduction, appearing on the surface of the bark along with exudate.
The penetration of ervinia into tissue cells occurs through damage to the bark of the tree - frost bruises, mechanical wounds due to pruning, integrity damage on foliage and apples.
At the flowering stage, pollinating insects, birds and pests carry infectious exudate to the inflorescences of healthy apple trees. Thus, the disease continues to spread with floral nectar and through the peduncle, clinging inside the conducting vessels.
Distribution through the tissues of organs occurs through the vascular system and leads to systemic damage to the tree.
Bactria spread very fast.
Contributing factors and bacterial allies
The spread of infection is facilitated by prolonged rains at moderate temperatures, including a rise of up to 20 ° and above and an excess of humidity of 70%. With the onset of hot summer weather, the development of erwinia slows down and re-enters the active stage in the fall.
Intensive spread of bacterial bacillus is facilitated by parasitic microorganisms:
- fungus - the causative agent of moniliosis, which damages the cells of the pestle and facilitates the penetration of erwinia;
- gram-negative pseudomon - a bacillus that destroys the hard integumentary epithelium, through which the introduction of bacterial bacillus is difficult.
Chemicals in the treatment of bacteriosis
Infections with bacterial etiology are treated with medications from the antibiotic group:
- ampicillin - 1 ampoule per 10 liters of water, applicable for spraying throughout the growing season;
- phytolavin - 20 ml per 10 l of water, applicable for wood processing and irrigation in the area of the trunk circle;
- tetracycline (3 tablets) with streptomycin (1 ampoule of 500 thousand units) per 5 l of water, are suitable for spraying before, during and after the flowering stage until the apples ripen;
- gentamicin - 1 ampoule per 1 liter of water, applicable for impregnation of a garden bandage with which pre-cleaned areas of damage to the tree bark are tied, having exudate discharge;
- ofloxacin - 2 tablets 10 water, applicable for spraying before and after the flowering stage.
Antibiotics are used in the treatment of bacterial burn in combination with fungicidal agents, because often the infection is accompanied by concomitant fungal diseases. As fungicides for complex treatment, Skor, Ridomil Gold, Acroba and the like are recommended.
Folk remedies in the treatment of bacteriosis
It is not effective to treat a bacterial burn with folk remedies alone, but they can be additional therapy to help cope with the infection.
Boric and succinic acids create an acidic environment that increases the overall resistance of trees. For spraying, make an aqueous solution of 10 liters of water:
- 10 g of boric acid either
- 10 tab. succinic acid.
The use of solutions based on wood ash increases the immune system of apple trees by increasing the content of potassium and phosphorus in them.
Recipe: 200 g of ash diluted in 10 l of water.
Nutritional yeast has an inhibitory effect on bacterial microorganisms and activates plant growth.
Recipe: 10 g yeast, 2 tbsp. granulated sugar is dissolved in 10 l of heated water, incubated for 2 hours and the damaged trees are sprayed.
It has the ability to clean the soil from pathogenic bacteria, nourishing the garden culture with potassium and phosphorus. It is used in the form of mulch with a layer of 5-7 cm.
Biological agents in the treatment of bacteriosis
Treatment should be started immediately.
An additional measure in the fight against bacteriosis is the use of biological spectrum compositions in combination with antibiotics and folk remedies. They saturate the soil and apple trees with useful flora, strengthening and healing the land and garden culture.
The drug has a biological spectrum of activity that enhances metabolic processes, neutralizes the harmful effects of toxic substances and acts as an immunomodulator.
Apply in different forms:
- concentrate - 100 ml per 10 l of water, intended for irrigation of garden crops at the end of the harvest;
- standard - 50 ml per 10 l of water, applicable for spraying on apple leaves up to 7 times during the growing season with intervals between treatments of 14 days;
- phytostim - 50 ml per 10 l of water, intended for irrigation once every 30 days.
The biological preparation Baikal-EM1 is an immunostimulant and an antidote. Apply for spraying.
Recipe: 10 ml per 10 l of water. Frequency of use - 3 times per weight during the growing season.
Roll No 1
Radiance-1 refers to the restoration of soil microflora. Designed for watering in spring.
Recipe: 1 bag per 0.5 l of water, the dissolved active substance (10 ml) is diluted in 10 l of water.
Preventive measures against bacteriosis
Be sure to regularly process the tree
The best measure to combat the bacterial burn of apple trees is preventive therapy and agricultural technology:
- the active use of fertilizer complexes, among which components are present in an increased proportion of phosphorus and potassium, these components improve the resistance of fruit trees to phytopathogenic microorganisms;
- use for planting healthy seedlings;
- selection of varieties resistant to bacteriosis;
- prevention of thickening, thinning of tree crowns;
- disinfection of technical equipment used for pruning and vaccination;
- timely removal of infected leaves and apples;
- trimming infected shoots to a length with a capture of a healthy area of at least 0.2 m;
- regular treatment of garden crops from pests.
Among the physical phytosanitary measures is the uprooting of wild crops that are most often infected.
Common mistakes in the treatment of bacteriosis
In the fight against a bacterial burn, gardeners often make a number of typical mistakes that complicate the treatment of apple trees.
The most common:
- Incorrect diagnosis. Often, signs of bacteriosis are perceived as symptoms of drying out of trees due to insufficient watering. Starting to plentiful watering in the absence of the correct diagnosis of a bacterial burn, they provoke the intensive development of the bacillus.
- In the treatment of bacteriosis, some begin to use fungicidal preparations, the action of which is aimed at the destruction of infections of fungal etiology. But ervinium belongs to bacteria - and the effect of antifungal fungicides for it is not fatal.
- Improper care. In the process of caring for the affected tree, especially in orchards with tall varieties, the maintenance of which is difficult due to their height, the bacteria affected by the bacteria are left at the tops of the crowns. However, infected apples are reservoirs for maintaining erwinia throughout the winter. After that, the stick penetrates into the tissues and organs of the tree through the peduncle.
Bacteriosis can damage the apple tree, leading to complete destruction in 1-2 seasons. It is treated with antibiotics in combination with fungicides, as often accompanied by fungal diseases. Folk and biological agents can be used as additional therapy.