The wildlife of the Samara region never ceases to amaze with its beauty and wealth. In the forest thickets there are various types of berries, interesting and useful plants and mushrooms. The Volga region has long been famous for its forests. Tolyatti is located near Samara, in the north-west of the region. The main natural wealth of Togliatti is mushrooms, they are known throughout Russia.
Each mushroom picker has its own favorite mushroom places and harvesting methods.
Before going to the forest, you should find out what is allowed to be collected, and what should not be and why. To do this, get acquainted with the main characteristics of mushrooms.
By their edibility, they are all divided into 4 categories:
- 1st category: edible;
- 2 category: conditionally edible;
- 3 category: inedible;
- 4th category: poisonous.
Their taste and aroma are different, so they are used in different ways. A classification of tastes was invented:
- aromatic: white, oily, mushrooms;
- less fragrant: chanterelles, duperas;
- with a weak aroma and taste: mushrooms, milky.
The most fragrant are used for cooking all types of dishes. They require lengthy processing. White is easy to clean, they do not need pre-treatment.
Chanterelles, duperas, mushrooms, etc. used for pickles. They only take hats from honey mushrooms, in which there is less chitin and more benefit (they are more easily processed by the human body, although partially).
Millers, raincoats, etc. do not have a bright aroma and taste. They are attributed to the conditionally edible group, which needs prolonged soaking in order to get rid of the bitter taste of milky juice.
Poisonous fly agaric is better not to collect. Only professionals know how to remove toxins from them.
The collection period does not end all year. Even in winter, some manage to find certain species, including the following:
- oyster mushroom;
- winter honey agaric;
- birch sponge;
They are little known, but are often found in snowy forests. They begin to be collected from November to March.
Honey mushrooms can be collected with the onset of cold weather
Winter mushroom has the following description:
- hat - from 2 to 9 cm;
- hat color - honey;
- pulp structure - mucous;
- spore-bearing plates widely spaced, rare;
- the color of the spores is whitish;
- leg - up to 10 cm in height;
- body shape is cylindrical.
They grow in groups on stumps or fallen trees. Often found in gardens and city parks.
Irina Selyutina (Biologist):
The winter mushroom belongs to the Ryadovkov family, although the genus Flammulin, of which he is actually a representative, also belongs to the Negniuchnik family. In the center of the hat, the surface has a darker shade. In wet weather, the hat becomes mucous. Adult mushrooms can often be covered with brown spots, which do not affect its taste in any way.
It is interesting that cells damaged during severe colds are able to restore their vital activity as soon as the air temperature becomes positive again. As it turned out, this species can be grown in a humid and not very warm basement.
Knowing the place, they are found there every year. The product is pickled and dried. When processing does not lose its appearance.
Oyster mushrooms near Togliatti are more often harvested in the cold season.
Getting to know them is easy. They are noticeable on the trunks of poplars or other hardwoods, found on dry birches and aspens.
- the leg is on the side and goes into the hat;
- cap size - up to 10 cm;
- color is light, gray or brown;
- the flesh of the leg is hard;
- the aroma is weak.
This species is much tastier than store mushrooms, as mushroom grown in the wild lives in a completely different, let's say, environment, which affects its taste data. Sometimes they say that they are "fatter" cultural counterparts. For cooking, it is better to take only hats that have a pleasant and tasty pulp. They make excellent pastes and snacks.
This valuable winter representative grows in cracks on the trunks of birch trees and does not look very attractive, resembling an ugly outgrowth of gray-brown color. But tinctures from it (alcohol-based) have antimicrobial and antiviral properties, they improve metabolism and stimulate the immune system. To collect it, you need a good sharp knife, because its surface is rough and dense.
Another winter species characteristic of this area is the orange tremor. In shape, it looks like a human brain with a jelly-like consistency. Grows on dead branches of deciduous trees. Description:
- body shape is round;
- size - up to 4 cm;
- matte surface;
- Orange color;
- gelatinous flesh;
- spores are ovoid;
- spore powder is white.
The Tremella has been growing since November. Like all representatives of the same kind in dry weather, they “dry out”, and after rain they restore their original structure. Some consider it inedible, but with a certain processing, it is especially tasty in salads. Has no special useful properties.
Rowing can grow even on a lawn
With the onset of steady heat, when the temperature is kept at 15 ° C, the mushroom places of Togliatti are replenished with spring species:
- May rowers.
In raincoats, hats grow literally before our eyes, so it is better to collect them immediately after rain, so that they do not have time to deteriorate. Old individuals are damaged by insects.
It is better to look for lines in coniferous forests at the end of April or in the first days of May.
Irina Selyutina (Biologist):
Stitches described 3 types:
- from. ordinary (Gyromitra esculenta);
- from. giant (Gyromitra gigas);
- from. Autumn (Gyromitra infula).
They are similar to each other, but differ in both features of appearance and the place and time of development. Knowing these features allows you to determine which of these species is in your basket. In the spring there are species with. ordinary and giant. All species are conditionally edible due to the presence of the gyromitrin toxin in the pulp of apothecia.
They can not be confused with other species, due to the description:
- shriveled hat, resembling in appearance the core of a walnut;
- short leg;
- leg color is white;
- the color of the hat is brownish or beige;
- fruit body size - 30x15 cm.
Before cooking, the lines, like morels, are soaked so that the taste is more tender and pleasant.
May Rowing (St. George mushroom) is found even in the garden on the lawn or in the park.
Summer and Autumn Views
Closer to summer, at the end of May, two-ring champignon appears. Behind it, mushroom places are being updated, other summer and autumn species are beginning to grow rapidly:
- honey agarics and field;
Often, under aspens, not only aspen mushrooms are found, but also spikelets, which are similar in taste and description to varieties of cep. The difference is in the color change on the cut. After a while, it becomes beige.
Near Togliatti, several types of russula are collected, common features are common to all:
- height - up to 18 cm;
- cap diameter - up to 20 cm;
- characteristic taste and aroma;
- at the break, the color does not change;
- the leg is hollow;
- the flesh is fragile;
- refers to lamellar species.
It grows in forests near Tolyatti until mid-October. Suitable for food even raw. Culinary specialists make snacks, pastes from them and add them to meat or fish side dishes.
Autumn honey mushrooms grow in large groups. Collecting them is a pleasure. A basket comes out of one place.
At the end of November, there are still mossovics. They are delicious when fried, in pickles and in soups. They grow in groups, mushroom pickers are more often found in mixed forests.
There are a lot of mushroom places near Togliatti. You can get to them in different ways: both by car and by regular bus or minibus.
- Malyshevka village: near it are rich mushroom places. Get there by bus. In the surrounding forests a lot of butter, oyster mushrooms and honey mushrooms.
- District of the village of Sergievsk: there are good places with birch bark and white breasts. If you go deeper, you will often be able to find families of honey mushrooms. It is easier to get there by regular bus, having reached Sukhodol, and then walk 1 km towards Ufa.
- Mehzavod village, not far from Samara: on a minibus, they reach this village and go look for mushroom places rich in honey mushrooms and white here.
- Bogatoe village, Bogatovsky district: mushroom pickers go here more often for mushrooms.
- Moscow highway: along the highway there are a lot of oyster mushrooms and honey mushrooms, butter and mushrooms.
- Novosemeykino village, Krasnoyarsk region: a lot of butter, honey mushrooms, saffron milk mushrooms and oyster mushrooms are also found near this settlement. Here you can find off-season mushrooms.
- villages Coastal and Vintai (about 40 km from Togliatti): they go there for different types of mushrooms. But action is required with caution, because there is a testing ground for rocket launchers nearby.
- Kuzovatovo village: in its vicinity it will turn out to collect bags of saffron milk mushrooms and honey mushrooms. On the map it is about 180 km from Tolyatti, so it’s better to go by your own car.
- Volga Islands: they should go for valuy and whites.
There are so many mushroom places in the vicinity of Tolyatti that the wishing person will be able to collect full baskets without much effort. Dried or pickled mushrooms will be an excellent snack, complement and diversify the daily diet and strengthen the immune system during the winter cold.