Substitution knot on grapes

A correctly formed knot of substitution on grapes is a procedure that favorably affects the growth and development of the bush, its future fruiting.

Substitution knot on grapes

Description knot substitution

Substitution knots are fruit shoots. The difference between them is different lengths. A knot is a short-cut vine, which is a spare, in case of damage to the developed fruitful part of the plant. Together, these two parts of the bush form a classic fruit link.

Such a knot is a necessary precaution of adjusting the load of the branches of a plant. They are located below the fruit-bearing arrows and are formed from young shoots. In a year, it will be possible to create a tall fruiting branch from them.

You can also do without such knots, but such grape formation options will have some drawbacks. The vine is obtained from the lower annual processes. The resulting sleeve will be long, which often causes difficulties when covering the plant for the winter.

Cropping options

When forming grapes, attention is paid to favorable fruiting conditions not only for the coming season, but also for subsequent years. That is, each sleeve should have 1-4 fruit units. The function of the reserve knot is to limit the growth of the culture, since without the adopted agrotechnical measures, the fruitful sections of the bush will move away from the stem and suffer from a lack of nutrients.

You need to crop the crop in both spring and autumn. At the beginning of the growing season, replacing knots are formed, and at the end, branches that have already completed fruiting are cut. The formation itself is different:

  • with the removal of the replacement part;
  • without removing the knot;
  • pruning fruit arrows;
  • Strengthening the fruiting link.

Each of these schemes has pros and cons. Choose one, given the varietal characteristics of the grapes: growth rate, yield, etc.

With a knot removed

The main purpose of this removal is to create conditions for the formation of the fruiting arrow as a fruit link. Cut it off, leaving up to 15 buds on the vine. The arrow is updated without a spare knot by trimming the shoot obtained from the first eye of the vine.

Next fall, the remaining long branch is pruned. Only 2 young shoots leave. Cut them shortly, into 2 kidneys. In subsequent years, the operation is repeated.

To avoid possible problems with damage to the shoot, it is better to leave another, escape shoot. If it is damaged by frost, the bush will not lose the chances of bearing fruit.

Without removing the knot

Cutting grapes without a knot of substitution is carried out when 2 vines are formed on a young bush. One is cut into 3 eyes, and a sleeve is made from the second. With the end of the growing season, pruning of annual shoots is carried out. Only 5-10 of the strongest are left. They get rid of the rest.

With each subsequent year, the procedure is repeated. The knot of substitution is shortened only in the spring, and in the autumn work with the received sleeve is performed. So, every year, the bush will increase the number of fruit vines. The winemaker will only have to choose a suitable form for him.

Pruning fruiting arrows

It is important to form a bush

This is the most popular type of formation among winegrowers. With proper execution, it will be possible to create good conditions for fruiting. Use it only for non-covering grape varieties. The main goal is to grow the bark on the vine so that the berries are juicy and sweet.

Only 2-3 buds are left on each fruit link. Between links maintain a distance of 15-25 cm. The distance varies by the number of arrows. The larger their number, the greater the distance between them. With this formation, the shoots will become sleeves in the future. In spring, the lower eye is cut into 3 buds. He will act as a replacement knot.

Strengthening fruit links

Reinforcement is the use of 2 fruitful arrows. They are tied up to later receive 2 quality fruitful vines. The task of the winegrower is to determine the strongest shoots formed. They are left, and the weak are removed.

For the knot of substitution, lower shoots on the fruiting link are used. The remaining second vine is removed. Such pruning is considered convenient for those who grow cover crops. It promotes the formation of a compact form of the bush.

Like other pruning schemes, fruit chain reinforcement has both advantages and disadvantages. Among the pluses, a large number of green eyes are distinguished. This will help determine the number of frost-damaged kidneys. The disadvantage is that several green parts will have to be removed to comply with the formation rules. That is, the plant loses forever part of the branches and processes of useful substances spent on providing.

Resuscitation of knots of substitution

Substitution knots are often mistakenly pruned without thinking about the consequences. In order not to destroy the plant, the procedure should be carried out according to the rules.

There are 2 action plans for the resuscitation of knots of substitution. The first is the simplest.

  1. The most damaged shoots are removed.
  2. Slightly damaged processes are pruned for fruiting.
  3. After a year, 1-2 of the strongest shoots are left.
  4. In autumn, the left parts of the plant are formed into a knot of substitution.

This method of replacement knot is universal. If performed correctly, it is suitable for both covering and non-covering grapes.

The method of the second method consists in shortening a strong shoot. Cut it into a bitch. In the autumn, on the fruit arrow, it will be necessary to remove all annual processes. Such a scheme will also help maintain crop yields, but is not suitable for all its varieties. Use it only for varieties of grape culture, characterized by high yields.

Conclusion

The replacement knot should be an equivalent substitute for the prolific vine in the future. Also, it will be needed if the kidneys of the fruiting part of the plant are damaged in order to preserve the crop.

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