Shelter of climbing roses for the winter - what experienced gardeners advise
Climbing roses need more shelter for the winter than tea hybrid, ground cover and park. Their main difference is the presence of flexible non-lignified shoots. This is the guarantee of the beauty of such plants, and the main source of problems: without a strong bark, they will not survive the frost. It is no accident that this species is most popular precisely in a mild climate.
Shelter of climbing roses for the winter - what experienced gardeners advise
To grow climbing roses in harsh conditions you need:
- choose zoned varieties;
- provide special autumn care;
- organize a winter shelter that provides dryness and air flow to the branches (it will take on part of the function of the dense bark).
Breeders have developed modern varieties that can withstand cold weather without significant losses, but you need to know the characteristics of lianoid plants in order for shelter to benefit them.
The main operation for ordinary roses, which protects the bush from freezing, is autumn radical pruning of shoots. But for the climbing, it is contraindicated. They form buds on the branches of last year and on lignified ones - the current. Low-cut stems will not bloom next season.
Competent shelter for the winter will provide luxurious flowering and save:
- from freezing;
- frost bite;
- untimely activation of life processes.
Curly roses carry a drop to a temperature of -10 ° C. Moreover, with such a small cold, their stems harden and wood faster, which means that they will be prepared to enter the winter.
But too early shelter can destroy flowers. As well as the late removal of the protective structure in the spring.
The main cause of death is boiling. His roses are more afraid than frost.
The optimal time for creating insulation is the onset of a constant minus temperature during the day at 5-7 ° C:
- in Moscow region - the end of October-mid-November;
- in the Urals - in the first half of October;
- in Northern and Central Siberia - the end of September;
- in the south of Siberia - early October;
- in the Leningrad region and in the North-West - the very end of October.
The variegated varieties “incorrectly” react to the autumn pruning of young branches — they can drive out new shoots from the place of cut.
Even small changes in temperature and humidity provoke awakening of the kidneys and activation of vital processes in the stems.
These features are explained by the fact that the plant cannot independently go into the period of biological dormancy. With a slight frost, activity only slows down, it is able to resume from minor reasons.
Shelter of climbing roses for the winter is carried out in 2 stages:
- Preparation, which is aimed at translating the bush into the deepest possible autumnal slowdown and increasing the maximum area of lumbering.
- The room is in a shelter structure.
With proper preparation for the winter, the plants will remain healthy.
Starting from the first days of August, roses are transferred to top dressing with potassium-phosphorus fertilizers with additives that contribute to the development of the root system and the maturation of processes of the current year.
Since then, nitrogen for climbing bushes is strictly prohibited.
The composition of the food per 10 liters of water:
- 1 matchbox of superphosphate;
- 0.5 matchbox of potassium sulfate;
- 2.5 g of boric acid.
The solution is distributed over 4-5 square meters. m square.
After a month, top dressing is repeated, replacing potassium sulfate with potassium monosulfate or potassium magnesia (20 g). An extract from kiln (wood) ash also helps: 1 glass per bucket of water.
It is easier to use autumn fertilizer for flowering plants. Then just do not go wrong with the dosage.
When preparing for winter, it is very good to carry out foliar feeding of lashes. To do this, dilute the above composition 3-4 times and spray vines. During flowering, spraying on the leaf is not welcome: decorative colors may suffer.
Watering and loosening
Since August, watering is stopped. The restriction in the liquid helps the wood dry out, which means that it does not crack during frosts.
At the end of the last summer month, the loosening and digging of the near-stem circle is stopped so as not to cause the growth of radical renewal points.
The climbing rose responds to pruning flowers by forming new peduncles. Therefore, in the fall, in preparation for the winter period, they are not cut on the vine. Such an operation at positive temperature can provoke the awakening of the flower bud below the cut and the growth of young shoots.
On the contrary, the formation of fertility (seed bolls) leads to lignification of the branch, which will be beneficial in winter.
If the rose is actively blooming, you can interrupt this process by bending the peduncle near the bud.
Be sure to crop:
- Young stems from the center of the bush, which began to grow in late August-September. They have not yet gained strength for flowering, and in winter they will still freeze.
- Branches and shoots growing inward, basal shoots, thickening it. They are cut out at the root.
- Leaves at the bottom of the vines, leaving petioles that cover the buds of growth.
- Sick and damaged leaflets.
Note! Leaf blades are not torn off so as not to disturb the renewal zone.
With the onset of stable frosts (3-4 ° C), immediately before shelter, they begin to cut off faded shoots to the lignified part. It is difficult for beginners to define this boundary.
There are several signs:
- To the touch, you can understand which part of the branch will overwinter or freeze: you need to touch it at minus air temperature. A cold shoot will die in the winter, a warm one will survive.
- It is believed that it will survive the winter stems, from which thorns are easily plucked.
Cut the bush in dry weather. Large sections are sealed with garden varieties or sprinkled with wood ash.
Do pruning preferably in dry weather
2-3 days after pruning, the remaining leaves are removed if possible. With the onset of frost, they crumble if you shake the branches vigorously.
The opinions of gardeners regarding the complete removal of leaf blades were divided. Some believe that some of the healthy should be left if the rose is covered with a non-woven translucent material. Under it, the leaves continue to participate in photosynthesis, even with a slight minus on the street.
Disease and Pest Treatment
After pruning, the vines must be treated with Bordeaux liquid (2%). This is especially important for those shoots from which leaves are not completely cut. The solution is prepared in accordance with the instructions.
The use of biological products for autumn processing is impractical: they begin to work only at positive temperatures.
All plant residues are removed from under the bush and the soil is treated with fungicides.
Before shelter, shoots and ground are abundantly sprinkled with ash, which dries the soil well and prevents the spread of powdery mildew.
After all treatments, the vines are freed from the fasteners so that the branches move to a horizontal position under their own weight.
This is important if the frosts are stable: the shoots become fragile and their forced strong bending will lead to breakdowns.
Spruce the bush with dry soil mixed with sand. Not suitable for these purposes:
- manure, compost;
These materials absorb and retain moisture well, which will lead to decay and maturation of the root neck.
The height of the earthing up of the base is 20-25 cm. On top, it is optimal to put the spruce branches in one layer.
After 5-7 days, the plant is completely covered. For this, coniferous branches, boards, ruberoid, plywood - any material that does not absorb moisture well is placed on the soil.
Attention! It is impossible to lay the branches of a rose on bare ground. The bush is pressed to the ground with special studs or arcs.
Selection of cover material
The purpose of the protective structures is to protect from frost in the winter, moisture and heating in the thaw. Therefore, the covering material must pass air!
To protect against high humidity, gardeners use a plastic film.
- transmits sunlight;
The main disadvantage is that the plant does not breathe. When completely covered with such material, the condensate will not evaporate. There is a high risk of heating due to temperature variations.
The film is not suitable for complete shelter
To avoid negative consequences, the film is used as follows:
- only in frame structures;
- stacked on top of a "breathable" material;
- placed on top of the structure, leaving the ends and products near the ground free.
The "umbrella" from the film is well suited for drying the shoots before complete shelter. To do this, polyethylene is pulled onto the frame without closing the ends. Thus, the main condition for safe wintering is achieved - plants should go dry in winter.
Ideal Shelter Material:
- Keeps warm.
- Prevents condensation.
- Transmits light.
- Shoots under such a shelter can ripen if the light frost lasts for a long time to -8 C.
- When placed with the waxed side up, it does not allow moisture to enter.
- Does not absorb water.
- It dries quickly.
Apply spanbond with a density of 50-60 g / m² - in one layer or 30 g / m² - in 2 additions.
When choosing a material, you need to give preference to white color - so there will be less chance of spring sunburn. The same effect is achieved with other non-woven shelters: lutrasil, agril.
This material is traditional for the construction of a shelter. It is cheap and affordable. It can be reused.
However, burlap is not without flaws:
- the fabric for modern bags is woven with the addition of synthetic threads, which does not promote air exchange and leads to heating;
- this material is moisture permeable, which is critical for a rose;
- absorbs water. In cold weather, an ice crust forms on a wet surface, which also will not delight a sheltered plant;
- pathogenic microflora may remain on reusable bags.
It is possible to apply this covering material, but it is necessary to pre-disinfect it by soaking in a pink solution of potassium permanganate for 30-40 minutes. On top you need to stretch the film, leaving the product in a layer of polyethylene.
At-hand material, its only advantage is budget. However, it quickly gets wet and dries for a long time. Craftsmen use cardboard boxes, covering them with polyethylene on top and placing them on bricks to isolate them from soil moisture.
The percentage of survival under such a shelter is small and completely dependent on weather conditions.
The method of shelter depends on the climate of the region
Apply in frame protective structures. Roofing material can withstand snow layer thickness up to 1 m. Moisture-proof. To avoid mating, it is recommended to leave the product.
Unlike polyethylene, the material is not destroyed by sunlight, it can be used repeatedly.
Spruce or pine branches
The most environmentally friendly covering material.
- Protects from severe frosts.
- It does not form an ice crust.
- Provides ventilation.
- It does not give in to decay.
- Guarantees sun protection.
- Prevents the development of pathogenic microorganisms.
Of the disadvantages - it is not always available, does not retain moisture. The most optimal combination is with spanbond.
Winter protection methods
If there is little or no snow, then it is enough to cover the lashes of the rose with covering material.
For southern regions with mild winters, winding vines are not removed from the supports. Highly (up to 30 cm) the base of the bush is spudded, the branches are covered with spanbond and tied with ropes.
Where snow cover is negligible, shoots are laid on a layer of spruce, plywood, roofing felt. They also cover with coniferous paws from above and cover material is placed on top.
If there is a lot of snow, then a simple frameless shelter will not work - a snowdrift will press the covering material to the ground, the plant will not have enough air. To avoid this, a rigid structure is constructed above the laid branches.
Basic requirements for the frame:
- It should provide a free space above the stems of at least 10-15 cm.
- To withstand the thickness of the snow cover, the maximum observed in the area.
- Do not push through under snow (have stiffeners at a small distance from each other).
Frames are constructed from wooden boards or planks, sheets of plywood, rods, polypropylene pipes. The simplest design is from boxes covered on top with spanbond.
When take cover
It is important to build up a protection for the climbing rose in time for winter and also to remove it in time - a delay will lead to the plant warming up under the spring sun, and under the opaque cover the flower will suffer from a lack of light.
It is necessary to open the bush gradually so that sunburn does not damage the whips.
In the Moscow region and in the Central zone of the Russian Federation they do this in March, when it warms up the sun during the day: they release the ends at the shelter or form a hole.
When the earth is thawing and the average daily temperature is at least 4-5 °, all protection is removed.
How to cover climbing roses for the winter:
- Preparation begins in late August: watering, loosening, and the introduction of nitrogen fertilizers and organics are stopped.
- To stable colds, they are fed with phosphorus-potassium mixtures at least 2 times.
- Do not cut flowers and stems until constant frost.
- At an average daily minus air temperature of 5-6 C, leaves, shoots, and fruit are removed.
- Processed with 2% Bordeaux liquid.
- They spud the bush with dry earth to a height of 25-30 cm.
- They untie them from the support and give time to fall to the branches under their own weight.
- Run shoots on a layer of plywood, roofing felt, spruce branches. Fasten with brackets or arches.
- They build a frameless (with snowless or little snowy winter) or frame shelter.
- Top cover with a covering or improvised material, waterproof, but allowing the plant to breathe.
Growing climbing roses in Russia is not easy. But beauty requires sacrifice. Beaten up, but you won’t say more accurately. If you want your heart to stop beating with delight in front of a waterfall of fragrant flowers - work hard! A detailed and time-tested instruction is in front of you.