Serbian spruce - variety of varieties and their features
In 1857, the Serbian botanist and doctor Josif Pančić discovered and described a rare species of coniferous culture. She was named after him - Panchicheva Omorika. Another name for the plant is Serbian spruce. What are the features of its planting, cultivation and care? How to protect the conifer from diseases and pests, and where is the best planted?
Serbian spruce - variety of varieties and their features
View brief information
- Color : dark green to gray-silver.
- Height : up to 35 m.
- Crown width : up to 5 m.
- In which regions it grows : a valley along the middle course of the Drina River, slopes of Mount Tara on the Balkan Peninsula (the territory of eastern Bosnia and western Serbia).
- Landing conditions : it is better to choose half-shaded places, between the holes should be at least 2-3 m.
- Immunity : resistant to most diseases.
- Life expectancy : up to 300 years.
In the wild, the plant is endemic to a limited habitat - a valley located on the Balkan Peninsula, along the middle course of the Drina River. This is a section of eastern Bosnia and western Serbia.
The distribution area does not exceed 60 ha. He prefers to grow on the northern slopes of Mount Tara, at an altitude of 0.8 km - 1 km 600 m.
On the territory of Russia and Europe, the cultivation process takes place without much difficulty, easier than when planting North American varieties: Canadian, Prickly.
It blooms in May, reaches maturity at the age of 12 to 15 years. Frost-resistant, wind-resistant, shade-loving. It adapts well to urban areas with highly gas or smoky air.
Information: in the natural environment, different varieties of Serbian spruce can live up to 300 years.
Consider the general biological description of the tree in the table.
|Trunk||Straight, covered with tan bark.|
Depending on the variety, it can grow up to 35 m in height and reach a diameter of 1-1.5 m.
|Crown||Pointing up and expanding downward, it has the shape of a column or narrow cone.|
|Branches||Short, arched, with raised edges, infrequent.|
Growth begins almost at the surface of the earth, young branches are pubescent and drooping, covered with brown bark, on adults the bark is reddish-gray, scaly.
|Needles||Pinnate, hard, covered with a coating resembling wax, needles grow in length by 0.8-1.8 cm, in width - up to 0.2 cm.|
The color of the needles is from dark green above to a bluish-silver bottom.
|Cone||Ovate, oblong, length from 3 to 7 cm.|
Covered with tight-fitting rounded scales.
|Seeds||Small (from 2 to 3 mm), with a thin transparent wing slightly larger (from 5 to 8 mm).|
Spruce will decorate your site
According to scientists, about 30 varieties of Serbian spruce grow in the wild, differing from each other in size, color, shape, etc. Breeders based on them have bred decorative varieties to decorate the landscape.
Consider the characteristics of each.
One of the most popular and famous varieties. It is characterized by increased frost resistance - it is able to tolerate frosts up to -40 ° C, it can grow in very shaded places.
The crown is thick, round, ovoid, in adult spruce it becomes conical. The color of the needles is blue-green. By the age of 30, the plant grows to 3-4 m, stretching annually by 7-10 cm.
Pendula Bruns (Pendula Bruns)
An original variety of spruce with a weeping, narrow (no more than 60 cm) crown shape and hanging branches growing on a central conductor arched in the middle.
For its appearance, the plant received a second name - "tree-snake".
The needles are two-color: the needles are blue above, decorated with 2 white stripes below, due to which the needles acquire a silver hue.
Light-loving, frost-resistant tree (resists frosts below -30 ° C) can grow on depleted soil. By the age of 3, it reaches a height of 3 m, annual growth - up to 20 cm.
By the age of 30, the leader’s height is able to reach 15 m. Propagated by grafting.
Dwarf Christmas tree, a hybrid that appeared as a result of crossing a Serbian spruce with Brever spruce. The first 10 years it grows very slowly - up to 8 cm per year, reaching about 70 cm. Further growth is proceeding at a faster pace - from 15 to 20 cm per year.
The crown is about 50 cm wide. He loves sunny areas, is quite stable and frost-resistant to the conditions of the city (can withstand temperatures up to -40 ° C).
The color of the needles is greenish-blue, with silver stripes. Young needles have a lighter shade.
Infrequently found in Russia, but very popular in European countries, a grade of Serbian spruce. The shape of the crown is pyramidal, with serpentine-flowing branches, the lower ones lie on the ground in the form of a "skirt".
Unusual color of the needles gives the plant its unusual color - from dark green at the top to bluish at the bottom.
At the age of 10 years, reaches a height of up to 1 m 50 cm, annual growth - 15 cm.
A dwarf evergreen shrubby tree that reaches a height of no more than 80 cm. The crown is hemispherical, dense.
A distinctive feature is the absence of the need for forming trim. Crohn is already in good shape.
The needles have a very beautiful color: from light green in young needles to blue-green in adult needles. It is steady against a variable climate (maintains temperature to -30 ° C), but does not possess strong wind resistance.
A dwarf variety that resembles the Nana variety, but has a much smaller size - at the age of 10 it reaches a height of 0.3 m, by 30 years it grows to a maximum of 0.9 m.
The needles are very beautiful, two-tone, gray-blue at the bottom and dark green above, sticking out in different directions.
The crown is nest-shaped, formed from closely adjacent short reddish branches. Needs frequent cleaning. Frost-resistant, well tolerating variety in shaded areas.
The availability of adequate lighting enhances the decorativeness of the Aurea variety
It differs in the golden color of the needles, which eventually becomes gray-green.
The more illuminated the landing site, the longer the needles retain their original shade.
By the age of 30, it reaches a height of about 12 m, with a crown diameter of 5 m. It tolerates severe frosts and gas contamination.
The name translates as “sugar head” because of the regular, conical shape of the crown, more rounded at a young age, and more severe in an adult tree.
The dwarf plant reaches a maximum height of 2.5 m and a crown diameter of 1.5 m by about 30 years. The branches are directed upward, the needles are slightly twisted. At the end of winter and early spring, it needs to be protected from direct sunlight.
One of the most unusual and rare varieties. Long branches grow unevenly, rarely enough, stick out in different directions, twist and bend. The needles are pressed to the shoots.
Young needles have a light blue tint, later acquire a blue-green color. An adult plant grows to 3 m.
A dwarf species, reaching the 10-year milestone, reaching 1 m 20 cm in height. Crohn is uneven, with vertically growing upper shoots, narrow bluish-green needles.
Young growths are white or creamy white. Landing in open places is contraindicated due to the threat of burning in direct sunlight. It is steady against frosts.
Peve Tijn (Peve Tijn)
A dwarf variety of Serbian spruce, reaching a height of 600 m in 10 years, up to 1 m 80 cm in 30 years. The crown of a young plant has a spherical shape, acquires the shape of a cone with age.
It has 3 needles: golden in youth, yellow-green in the upper part and silver-green in the lower part.
It does not tolerate stagnation of water, dense soil. It is advisable to plant on the sunny part of the site, in loamy soil with an acid reaction, to drain.
The tree has a very unusual, irregular shape of the crown. By the age of 30, its size is about 5-6 m.
Frost-resistant (can withstand temperatures up to -29 ° C), photophilous plant with 3-color needles: dark green, silver-blue, with white glimpses.
Properly selected planting material, a place for planting, exact adherence to planting technology will ensure a good adaptation of the plant to new conditions, its health and longevity.
In order to choose the right seedling, you must follow some rules:
- make a purchase in the spring, shortly before planting time;
- carefully inspect the condition of the needles - it should be elastic, fresh, without brown tips;
- to buy trees not with hands, but in a special nursery - in the conditions of the nursery, Serbian spruces are grown in open ground, and this greatly facilitates and shortens their adaptation period.
For planting choose a healthy plant
There are 2 options for purchasing seedlings:
- with an open root (a tree needs to be planted as soon as possible in pre-moistened soil to avoid drying out of the roots);
- with a closed root: in local plants, an earthen lump is often sheathed with burlap, in imported ones, the root system can be in a container or be wrapped in a film.
Before you plant a Serbian Christmas tree, you need to find a suitable place under it. The site should be located in the sun or be semi-shaded.
Landing in wetlands is not recommended. Due to the sensitivity of the plant to water stagnation in soils predisposed to this, a drainage procedure is carried out. In heavy soil with a high clay content add wood ash or clean river sand.
Work is performed with the arrival of spring or early autumn. First dig holes with dimensions:
- depth - 0.6 m;
- the width of the upper part is 0.6 m, and the lower one is 0.4 m.
Recommendation: if several fir trees are planted, the distance between them should be at least 2 m 50 cm - 3 m.
Sand, peat, humus in a ratio of 2: 2: 1 are added to the dug hole. If water appears in it, drainage is made by laying a layer of crushed stone with sand at the bottom.
Carefully, trying not to damage the roots, place seedlings so that the root necks are located at ground level. The trunk is leveled, covered with excavated and mixed with sand, peat and humus soil. Tamped a little. 5 liters of water are poured into the pit.
Tip: during the planting of Serbian spruce, fertilize the soil with a nitrophosic (about 150 g) for the fastest growth of the plant.
Although the plant is quite unpretentious, care for it should be constant. Otherwise, it begins to hurt, wither, loses decorativeness.
The first 4 weeks after planting, young trees are often watered. The need for watering is judged by the condition of the soil:
- if the lump of earth squeezed in the hand crumbles - watering is necessary;
- if it is viscous, there is still enough moisture.
Then watering becomes more rare, but plentiful: about once every 2 weeks, in hot weather - weekly, at least 10 liters of water for each Christmas tree.
Water is poured in several stages, this allows the roots located closer to the surface of the earth to get drunk. Adult plants are watered at the rate of 1 bucket of water per 1 m of linear growth.
At the end of irrigation, the soil in the hole is loosened to a depth of about 5 cm. In warm weather, it is useful to spray the crown from a small watering can. This will moisturize the needles, remove dirt and dust from it.
Information: young seedlings of Serbian spruce are watered throughout the growing season, which lasts from April to October.
Serbian spruce does not need special feeding. There is a need for them only on a site with depleted soil. But to completely abandon fertilizer is not worth it, as this will entail a slowdown in growth.
It is optimal to periodically use special root and foliar dressings created for coniferous ornamental plants.
Mulching and loosening the soil
To maintain plant health and soil nutrition, it is best to mulch the tree trunk circle. The best mulch for them are:
- sour peat;
- pine bark;
Various varieties of Serbian spruce need soil drainage to prevent stagnation of moisture. In this regard, they need loosening. Spend it no deeper than 6-7 cm.
Do this only for 2 years after planting, because further there is a risk of injury to roots located close to the surface of the earth.
In the subsequent period, they cost only mulching.
Haircut and trim
Sanitary pruning of dry, frost-bitten, broken, diseased twigs is performed regularly, as these lesions appear. For large spruce trees or trees with a rare crown does not require much effort.
The situation is more complicated with dwarf varieties having a dense, dense crown. Dust accumulates inside it, not enough light and air ventilation. This leads to the drying of twigs, the appearance of a spider mite. Therefore, it is necessary to inspect and prune such trees with special care.
Forming haircut is carried out 1 time per year. It is advisable to do this not in too warm weather: in the cut branches, the sap flow increases, which can cause various diseases. The maximum length of the cut is from 3 to 4 cm.
Tip: after cutting and trimming, process the Serbian Christmas tree and the soil under it with a fungicide, which includes copper.
The decorative conifer is frost-resistant. However, young Christmas trees up to 5 years old still need protection from the effects of low temperatures, they must be prepared for winter:
- wrap the crown with light breathing material, such as burlap;
- increase the mulch layer around the trunk to at least 7 cm;
- in winter, spud the Christmas tree with snow;
- gently shake the snow from the branches left uncovered.
To prepare for the winter, adult trees carry out only mulching.
- Cuttings. The most common and reliable way. For cuttings, one- or two-year-old shoots are used, which in the spring, after the end of frost (usually the month of April), are planted in a place protected from direct sunlight in open ground or in a container filled with sand, humus and peat. Shelter shoots are not required. Cuttings are watered like ordinary adult spruce.
- Vaccinations. Vegetative propagation occurs by grafting Serbian spruce on ordinary. Weeping varieties are propagated with this method; it requires certain professional skills.
- The seeds. It is applied to the varieties giving cones. To get a strong and beautiful plant, seedlings that differ in appearance from their parents are rejected. Only 20-50% of the initial amount remains. Landing at a permanent place is made 5 years after the emergence of seedlings.
The latter method is the most complex and time-consuming, therefore it is practically not used by gardeners.
Diseases and Pests
Picea omorika is a fairly strong plant with good health. But with excessive moisture with difficult drainage can become infected with rot and shute. The latter most often affects branches that fall to the ground. From one tree to another infection can be transferred with unwashed hands.
Fir-trees with a neglected form are destroyed due to the threat of the rapid spread of the virus and infection of healthy conifers.
At the first signs of the disease, the roots and the earth in the hole are shed with fungicidal preparations. In the spring, it is useful to spray the crown with products containing copper, or sprinkle with wood ash.
Recommendation: do not plant Serbian spruce next to tomatoes, potatoes, various berries.
Most often, the decorative culture is affected by the following pests:
- spider mite;
They are fought with insecticides. Existing pests are destroyed by a solution of colloidal sulfur. As a prophylaxis, the crown is treated with infusion of garlic, soapy water, a decoction of onion peel.
Use in landscape design
Due to its resistance to gas pollution, smoke, adverse environmental factors, the plant is widely used in urban landscape design. They are decorated with alleys, parks, squares, lawns, alpine hills, to land as hedges along the roads.
Fir-trees with weeping needles (for example, Bruns variety) look great in the frame of the garden arch. Dwarf varieties of conifers are planted in flower beds, in rock gardens, with a lack of free land they can be grown in a pot, putting in an slightly darkened place, on the terrace, an open balcony.
Trees are wonderful combined with any hardwood and coniferous species, flowers, with crops that prefer abundant but rare watering and acidic soil.
The main mistakes of gardeners, when growing Serbian spruce, are:
- acquisition from the hands of a weak, with damaged needles or root system;
- wrong place selection, planting seedlings in swampy soil;
- insufficient distance between the holes when planting several plants;
- excessive fertilizing;
- untimely treatment of Christmas trees from diseases and pests.
It’s not at all difficult to take care of spruces; it is important to follow all recommendations for their cultivation.
General review of gardeners
Gardeners and gardeners positively evaluate the experience of growing Serbian spruce. They like its frost resistance, ease of courtship.
A large variety of varieties allows you to choose the size of the Christmas tree, suitable for the site. Многих привлекает вполне приемлемая цена саженцев, продающихся в специализированных питомниках. Из минусов отмечают сложность выращивания растения из семян.