The secrets of growing carrots
Growing carrots, which is one of the most common crops in our region, can be done even by a novice gardener. In order to achieve maximum yield and to grow a juicy, sweetish-smacked vegetable in the open field, a number of rules must be observed.
The secrets of growing carrots
Carrots need light and loose fertile soils that pass moisture and air well. The acidity of the soil should not exceed indicator 7.
Fertility is increased by making humus. But it takes time to give all the nutrients to the soil. After 1.5-2 years after application of humus, the soil is enriched with nutrients and becomes suitable for growing vegetable crops that need a large number of trace elements. If garden crops are grown every year on the plot, then humus is brought in annually.
To harvest a good crop of carrots, they plant it in a well-lit area. Even a slight shadow from a tree in a plot reduces Yield. Vegetables are planted in the place where the previous year garlic or onions, tomatoes, white cabbage, cucumbers or potatoes were grown.
Other crops, especially beets, are bad predecessors for carrots. They are either affected by the same diseases as this vegetable, or they need the same trace elements as carrots. The most undesirable precursors to vegetables are celery, parsnips, parsley or dill.
It is impossible to plant vegetables in the same place for more than 2 years: the soil becomes poor. In addition, it accumulates bacteria and spores of fungi that infect root crops.
The best time to plant carrots
To grow a good carrot, you need to choose the right time for sowing seeds. This root crop is frost-resistant. For it to grow well, there must be a long daylight hours (12-14 hours).
Different varieties are planted at different times. In addition, climatic conditions in different regions differ significantly. In the Moscow region and the Leningrad region, for example, the climate is different, therefore, when choosing a landing time, they are guided by weather conditions:
- Early ripening hybrids are sown in open ground, after its upper layer warms up well. Determining the scale of the beds, take into account that they have a short storage period.
- Mid-ripe and late ripe hybrids are planted after the air temperature has risen above 15 ° C, and the soil warmed up on the bayonet of a shovel. If you sow them too early, they will not differ in keeping quality. After the air temperature rises to 18 ° C-20 ° C, the soil becomes excessively dry. This negatively affects the germination of seeds.
The timing of planting is affected by the type of soil. When growing root crops on light soils, planting is carried out throughout May. On medium soils, sowing of seeds is carried out no later than the 2nd decade of May. When choosing a planting date, study the planting calendar for carrots by day.
When growing a crop in a greenhouse or greenhouse, planting dates are earlier. Grow carrots at home on the balcony or window sill is not worth it. The root crop needs a large area.
With prolonged exposure to young plants at low temperatures (1 ° C-3 ° C), carrots bloom and begin to give arrows. Preventing bloom after the carrots released the arrows is impossible. The culture is planted after establishing a stable air temperature of more than 15 ° C.
Preparing planting material
Plant carrot seeds
The root crop propagates by seeds. They are collected from the plant in 2 years of life. It releases an inflorescence in the form of an umbrella. Inflorescences are rich in essential oils, which prevent moisture from reaching the embryo, which complicates the process of germination.
Pre-soaked seeds. This helps to reject low-quality, which after 9-10 hours rise to the surface of the water. After this time, the seeds are removed from the water and spread on a damp cotton fabric, kept at a temperature of 21-24 ° C for 2-4 days. Then planting material is dried in a natural way.
If the seeds are not soaked, the first seedlings will appear no less than a month later. Subject to this condition, the seeds will hatch after 10-12 days.
By soaking the seeds in hydrogen peroxide, it will be possible to disinfect them in parallel. Some summer residents before planting soak the seeds in a decoction of onion husks or pour over boiling water. These measures do not always give the desired result.
Sowing seeds in open ground
Before planting carrots on the selected bed, they are loosened to a depth of 15-20 cm. With the standard sowing scheme, the seeds are sown in grooves made with glanders. Their width should be 4-5 cm, and the depth should not exceed 2 cm. In-depth planting slows down the process of growing vegetables. The optimal width between the beds is 20 cm.
The landing technology is simple. Seeds are laid at a distance of 2 cm from each other in the prepared grooves. Previously, the soil inside the furrows is moistened. Complicating the planting process is that the seeds are small in size.
Summer residents have secrets and tricks to simplify the process of sowing seeds.
- To avoid thickening of landings, 1 tbsp. l seeds are mixed with 1 tbsp. clean sand. This composition is enough to plant 3 square meters. m plot.
- In order not to start the beds in anticipation of the first shoots of the root crop, carrot seeds are mixed with seeds of leaf lettuce or radish. These crops germinate much earlier. After their appearance, they begin to engage in weeding the area between the beds.
- Simplify sowing and by sticking seeds on strips of tissue paper. As an adhesive, a paste made from wheat flour and potato starch is used.
- To avoid thinning with a paste, 1 root seed and 1 fertilizer granule are glued together by placing them on a small paper square.
Carrots grow faster if they are covered with loose soil. Peat mixed with sand or earth is used as the top layer. The lower layer of the ridges should be dense. They are watered after the appearance of the first shoots. To moisture evaporate more slowly, mulch with peat.
Growing on ridges and hydroponics
Mid-season and late varieties are best grown on ridges 22–25 cm high and 15–18 cm wide. This method of preparing the soil is laborious, but can increase the crop yield. The root crop is also grown in hydroponics. The culture bears fruit well, does not lag behind in growth, but gives small and short tasty fruits.
Carrots are easy to follow
Caring for growing carrots involves loosening the soil, thinning seedlings, hilling, weeding and watering the site, applying fertilizers.
With a well-made layout of the planting, weeding the site begins even before the first shoots appear. All weeds are removed with roots. When growing carrots in the fields, one or another herbicide is used to control weeds. According to the instructions, chemical preparations do not adversely affect garden crops, but it is undesirable to use them in a country house or a small area near a house.
Loosening of the soil is carried out on the second day after irrigation. Crusts should not form on the surface of the beds. If an earth crust has nevertheless appeared, the soil is slightly moistened before loosening. If the crust appeared even before the appearance of the first shoots, loosening is done shallow, so as not to damage the planting material and not raise it to the surface of the soil.
Caring for sprouted carrots involves thinning the beds. The first thinning is carried out after 3-4 leaves have appeared on the plants, provided that the distance between them is less than 6 cm. Even at a distance of 5 cm, the root crop will not be able to grow normally. It is better to break through it after rain. If the thinning time has come, but no rain is observed, the soil is pre-watered.
In order to break through the culture and not harm it, young plants are torn out with a movement up, and not to the side. Harvested plants are laid away from the garden: they attract harmful insects by smell. Carrots are thinned out in the evening, after the end of the procedure, the garden is watered.
Picking involves replanting plants. Diving carrots is undesirable: it begins to branch. This is due to the fact that during the pulling, the central root breaks off.
Hilling a vegetable crop involves adding land to the garden after an insignificant part of the root crop appears above the ground. Under the influence of sunlight, the part that appears above the earth turns green, corned beef begins to stand out. This substance gives the vegetable bitterness during long-term storage.
Carrots spud on a cloudy day or closer to sunset. If you perform the procedure in sunny weather, you can attract a carrot fly to the beds. To fall asleep part of the root crop that appeared above the ground, use light soils.
It is impossible to grow good carrots without proper watering. It does not withstand both excessive moisture and drought. The root crop needs watering most during the period of active growth. If the weather is sunny and warm, the beds are watered no more than once every 2 days.
Watering young carrots is carried out at the rate of 4 liters per 1 square. m. By the end of the phase of active growth, the number of irrigations is reduced to once a week. For 1 square. m beds take 8-9 liters of water. If the weather is arid, the amount of watering is increased.
If a vegetable crop is planted on fertile soils, fertilizers are applied twice a season. Only late-ripening hybrids feed three times. Most vegetables need potassium. She feels less need for phosphorus and nitrogen. Excess nitrogen leads to weakening of the root system.
As fertilizers for the first top dressing, potash, nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers are applied in the amount of 60 g, 50 g and 40 g, respectively. An alternative option involves the use of ammonium nitrate, superphosphate and potassium chloride in an amount of 20 g, 30 g and 30 g.
As a second top dressing, nitrophoska (1 tablespoon per 10 liters of water), a solution of boric acid (1 teaspoon per 10 liters of water) or wood ash diluted with water are added. With the third feeding of late-ripening hybrids, nitrogen-containing fertilizers are excluded.
Liquid top dressing is applied not under the roots, but in the aisles. So that the root crop acquires moderate sweetness, it is treated with humates (1 g per 10 l of water) 15-20 days before harvesting.
Carrots can not always be reached with your hands
It is bad when the root crop grows, but it is not worth pulling it out in advance. At a temperature of 4 ° C, carrots cease to grow, and at sub-zero temperatures they are affected by gray rot. Harvested in late August or early September. As a rule, by the end of August, the root crop fully ripens.
The ripening period of the culture is 80-115 days. There are early hybrids that ripen in 2 months (Saturn F1). They are collected in the middle of summer. Harvest stored in a bag, well-permeable to air, or a box.
If the root crop has not gone through all phases of the growing season, and frost is coming, you should independently accelerate the ripening period. There are growth stimulators on sale. The use of these biological products does not harm the vegetable crop.
The average plant yield is about 100 tons per 1 ha.
Pests and diseases
It’s not enough to know how to grow carrots. It is important to be able to reanimate beds and get rid of harmful insects, infections and viruses. Carrots are most susceptible to white and gray rot, bacteriosis, felt disease and fomosis. Of the pests, hogweed, carrot fly and hawthorn aphid attack the vegetable crop.
- White rot appears due to excessive amounts of nitrogen in the soil. To save the plants will result in the introduction of preparations containing copper.
- Gray rot is a fungal disease. Insecticides are used to treat carrots. As a preventive measure, disinsection of the soil is carried out. The affected bushes look weak, the tops will fade even with sufficient moisture.
- Bacteriosis, or wet bacterial rot, is an infectious disease. Affected plants are removed from the beds, and phosphorus-potassium fertilizers are added under the remaining root crops. Affected plants are burned. If buried, the infection will penetrate the soil. Prevention of bacteriosis is the timely cultivation of the soil and the observance of crop rotation rules in the garden. So that the disease does not affect large and even carrots during storage, the crop is dried in the sun after harvest.
- Rhizoctonia, or felt disease, is a fungal disease. As a fight against the disease, the plantings are sprayed with a solution that contains mancozeb or copper oxychloride. As a preventive measure, crop rotation rules are followed and soil disinsection is periodically performed.
- Phomosis is one of the most dangerous fungal diseases. Affected plants are removed from the beds, the rest are treated with antifungal agents. As a prophylaxis of the disease, the crop is harvested on time and stored at a temperature not exceeding 10 ° C. The optimum storage temperature is 2 ° C. At lower temperatures, the root crop freezes, and at higher temperatures it becomes sluggish. Sluggish carrots lose their taste. After harvesting, carrot tops are removed from the site.
- To protect carrots from pests, flowers with a pungent odor are planted near the beds: marigolds, geraniums, etc. - they remove weeds in a timely manner and do not plant nearby vegetables that are affected by the same pests. Tar helps tar fight carrot onions.
To minimize the risk of any disease, use healthy planting material of high quality. From low-quality seeds, weak and light carrots often grow, which in the process of development often have to be treated with chemicals.
Carrots, with high productivity, are a cost-effective crop. It is good for health. For example, carrot juice is dripped into the nose with a runny nose. It is not always possible to grow even fruits. The reason for this is the introduction of chlorine-containing fertilizers, deoxidation of the soil before sowing, the presence of organic matter in the ground, excess moisture, impaired thinning process, excess nitrogen.
To grow large carrots and get a good harvest, it is not necessary to acquire special equipment. The main thing is to take timely measures of agricultural technology. The flow chart helps in this, where it is convenient to note the time of watering by the day, the date of application of top dressing, etc.
If the seeds are planted on different days, it is better to sign the beds. In the days of planting, it is easier to navigate the age of plants. This information is important when feeding and determining the date of harvest.
It doesn’t matter if the carrots are frozen or frozen. From the frozen carrots, the same dishes are prepared as from fresh. But the indicators of keeping quality under the influence of frost are deteriorating, so they are used in the first place.