The secrets of garlic yield
The yield of garlic depends on many factors. There are 2 varieties of culture: winter and spring garlic. In many ways, the number of root crops depends on the selected variety and region. There are special zoned varieties that are adapted to a specific climate.
The secrets of garlic yield
Garlic is a culture that is popular all over the world. It has not only piquant taste data, but also the healing properties that have been used in folk medicine for many years. The quality of the crop depends largely on the variety of culture.
- Spring varieties planted in spring give dense small heads with straight, slightly pointed teeth. Shelf life of about 12 months.
- The fruits of winter garlic, planted in the fall, significantly exceed the size of spring. The teeth are smooth, beautiful with a pungent spicy taste. Shelf life from 3 to 9 months, depending on the variety.
The yield of garlic from 1 hundred parts from 100 to 500 kg. It all depends on the place of cultivation, variety and conditions. The average yield of garlic from 1 hectare is from 10 to 50 tons. To get a good harvest, you must follow the rules of cultivation, crop rotation and provide root crops with the necessary care.
Growing garlic is a complex process in which it is important to take into account all the nuances of the variety and the climatic conditions of your region. The largest yields are observed in Ukraine on fertile chernozem soils. In Russia, when growing garlic, it must be borne in mind that this crop has been adapting to climatic conditions for quite some time. When planting a new variety, you need to understand that a good crop can only be obtained for 3 years, when the culture is fully adapted, so it is recommended to use zoned varieties, especially in the northern regions of Russia.
You should choose a good site for growing crops. Garlic is a photophilous plant, therefore, for planting a winter or spring variety, you need to choose a well-lit open area. Lands with a close occurrence of groundwater are completely unsuitable for growing these root crops. The culture grows well in open ground, so the construction of a greenhouse will be an unnecessary waste of effort, money and time. 1 hundredths will be enough.
It is very important to observe crop rotation on the site. You should not plant root crops for several years in a row in one place. You can return to the former place in 3 years. The precursors of garlic culture can be such plants:
Root crops should not be planted after nightshade crops. These include potatoes, sweet peppers, eggplant. Soil fertilizer for winter garlic is carried out before planting the previous crop. For summer varieties, top dressing is usually carried out in autumn.
For heavy soils, it is recommended to add 1 bucket of sand and peat per 1 m2. Plants respond well to the introduction of nitrogenous top dressing. Manure is not recommended immediately before planting. A good harvest of garlic can be obtained on sandy and loamy soils. The yield of garlic from 1 hundred parts in such areas is 450-500 kg.
Reproduction in different ways
The selection and preparation of planting material has a huge impact on productivity. Root crops can multiply:
Preparation of seed material begins at the harvesting stage. Only the largest specimens should be selected, without visible mechanical damage. The larger the root crops to plant, the better the yield. More and more often, farmers prefer planting material such as single tooth. Such seed is equally well suited for manual and mechanized planting, while the cloves are only suitable for manual planting.
One-tooth takes root exactly along the entire perimeter of the bottom, and at the tooth the roots appear only from the blunt end. Whatever the planting material, it must be disinfected before planting. To do this, use:
- saline solution;
- alkaline solution;
- potassium permanganate solution.
After processing, the heads are dried. You need to brush your teeth just before planting. One teeth are not cleaned at all.
Agricultural equipment and planting
The secret to a good harvest lies in choosing the right planting technique. In a small cottage, you can process the site manually. To cultivate a 1 hectare garden, you will already need specialized agricultural technology. These include tractors with mounted structures for tillage and sowing or a walk-behind tractor.
Planting winter garlic is carried out 30-40 days before the onset of persistent cold. This is the period from late September to mid-October. Summer varieties are planted in April. Root crops, regardless of the variety, are planted in furrows. The distance between the rows should be 25-30 cm.
Planting material is laid out at a distance of 10-15 cm from each other, slightly buried in the soil. When planting winter garlic, after filling the grooves with soil, you should immediately mulch the soil with sawdust or humus. If the winters in the region are snowy, you can do without mulching.
It is possible to significantly increase productivity by carrying out proper plant care. When the first sprouts appear, they begin to feed with urea. When growing winter varieties, fertilizers are applied to the soil that has not yet been heated. After 2-3 weeks, make mineral fertilizing. When 5-6 leaves appear, phosphorus and potassium are added.
Root crops like plentiful watering. During the active vegetation period, plantings are watered 3-4 times a month. Watering plants must be stopped 2-3 weeks before harvesting. It is very important to take care correctly. It must be regularly loosened so that the root system receives a sufficient amount of oxygen. In order for the garlic heads to grow larger, you need to shorten the arrows on the plants by at least 15-20 cm.
Harvesting and Storage
Planting and care is only half the battle, you still need to properly remove the root crops in order to be able to save the seed for the next year. The timing depends on the weather in the region. Usually they dig winter varieties in early August, and summer in September. A sure sign that it is time to collect root crops is yellowing of tops. In small areas, you can harvest vegetables manually, in areas of 1 ha it is better to use a mechanized method of harvesting.
The next step is treatment. For this, root crops are left in the sun for several days, so that they dry thoroughly. After that, they are folded under a canopy for 15-20 days and stored at a temperature of 25 ℃. After that you need to cut the tops. Leaves are not completely trimmed, leaving a tail of 3-5 cm.
For storage in braids, garlics are not trimmed at all. In a city apartment, summer varieties can be stored at room temperature, winter varieties only on the balcony. The average storage temperature of winter varieties is 2-5 ℃. The best option for storing root crops is in wooden crates or linen bags. In this form, vegetables are perfectly stored until spring, without losing their quality indicators.
How much your garlic crop will be stored depends on the variety and compliance with the rules. Throughout the winter period, it is necessary to sort out root crops, to discard rotten and empty heads. Seeds should be stored separately. It is recommended to put it in boxes and pour it with salt or ash.
How many root crops you harvest from 1 hectare of your site will depend on several factors:
- soil composition;
- climatic conditions;
- proper cultivation and care;
- proper storage of planting material.
The average yield per hectare on chernozems is 45 tons, on heavy soils, subject to all agricultural rules, 10 tons per 1 ha. Peat and sand will help improve the quality of the soil.
In order to grow a rich harvest, you need to choose the right crop for cultivation in your area because these root crops have a rather long adaptation period, at least 2 years. The culture responds well to regular feeding, plentiful watering and cultivation. To grow large heads, you need to cut the arrows in time by 15-20 cm.
When growing winter varieties, the soil needs to be mulched to protect plantings from freezing. Garlic is considered the most fertile and unpretentious crop. It is grown around the world.