Rules for planting winter garlic

Garlic is a perennial bulbous plant that is grown in many countries. Winter garlic, which is planted before winter, is especially popular. Appreciate it for large heads and cloves and ease of care.

Planting winter garlic

The key to the successful cultivation of such garlic is proper planting and quality care. This will ensure the development of healthy plants that will please a high yield.

Landing time

To get a quality crop, it is important to comply with the planting dates of winter garlic. This type of garlic is planted in the fall. Winter garlic before the onset of cold weather with minus temperature should be well rooted, but not have time to germinate. For full rooting, 30-45 days are required. Planting dates of winter garlic for different regions differ significantly. And they can fluctuate from mid-September to mid-November. Planting time will depend on the climate and the time of winter cold. According to the experience of gardeners, the best time for planting teeth will be mid-October. He will have time to root well and build up the root system, which can save him from freezing.

The landing time will also vary depending on the depth of landing. If planted to a depth of 5-9 cm, then you need to plant 25 days before the onset of cold weather. With an in-depth method of planting, to a depth of 10-15 cm, teeth can be planted from mid-September to the 20th of October.

The choice of variety and quality planting material

It is important to choose a good variety in the growing process that will yield a high yield, be well stored and be resistant to disease. Among the popular and those that have established themselves as quality, it is necessary to highlight;

  1. Sail - attributed to mid-season varieties. It has high frost resistance. Bulbs weighing up to 50 g, prongs are large, covered with white with a purple hue husk. Resistant to bacterial rot and nematode, has an average sensitivity to peronosporosis.
  2. Belorussky is an early ripe variety with excellent keeping quality. Heads weighing up to 80g with 4-7 teeth, covered with white husk with mild violet stripes. Rot is rarely affected.
  3. Lyubasha is a large-fruited variety with round bulbs weighing 110-120g. In one head, up to 7 teeth are formed. It tolerates frosts up to -20 C. It is not picky about watering, it maintains high productivity even during dry summers. Well kept. Resistant to Fusarium.
  4. Komsomolets is the best of winter-hardy garlic varieties. It has high productivity (1.5 kg / sq. M.) And heads weighing 50-110 g, with 9-11 cloves. Shell color is white with a gray tint. Not demanding for growing conditions. It has an average tolerance to diseases and pests. Resistant to fusarium and various bacterial rot.

Seeds

Choosing a suitable variety should be especially careful about the quality of planting material. Not only productivity, but also resistance to diseases and adverse conditions depends on this. When buying teeth for planting, you need to pay attention to some characteristics that indicate quality and affect germination. Teeth suitable for planting:

  • large and uniform in size;
  • even shape, without deformation;
  • without signs of disease and traces of rot, mold;
  • whole, not injured;
  • with an intact bottom.

Choosing a place to land

When choosing a place and a bed for planting winter garlic, you need to take into account the moisture of the soil, the light, and also which garden crops grew on this site last season. The place for planting should be moderately humidified and not flooded during the winter or spring thaw, the water on the bed should not stagnate. During stagnation of water, planted winter garlic can rot and become intensively affected by fungal diseases. The bed for winter garlic should be well lit and not shaded by other vegetable crops, bushes or trees. Poor lighting and shading affects crop size and quality.

The soil

Many vegetable crops are sensitive to the so-called crop rotation, garlic is no exception. It needs to be planted in the garden on which such crops used to grow:

  • Tomatoes
  • beans, beans;
  • pumpkin;
  • cabbage.

And the beds on which the onions or potatoes grew are better not to plant winter garlic. Also, the bed, which was fertilized with manure, will not work, the enriched soil with nitrogen will stimulate the intensive growth of the aboveground green part of the plants, and the growth of the bulb will be limited.

Preparation and landing

Before planting winter garlic, the heads are divided into cloves, the husks are not removed, inspected for damage. The teeth, the quality of which is in doubt, it is better not to use. After that, they can be treated with saline and copper sulfate solution, this will disinfect planting material and protect against plant infection by diseases. To prepare a saline solution in 5 l of water, dissolve 3 tbsp. l salt, soaked teeth 2 min. And then dipped in a solution of copper sulfate (1 tsp. Per 10 l of water) also for 2 minutes. After the procedure, it is washed with clean water and dried.

Keep depth and distance

Scheme and landing depth

For landing use a wide-row or tape landing scheme. Such methods simplify crop care and provide sufficient area for plant nutrition.

  1. With a wide-row planting, the distance between the rows should be 40-45 cm, and the distance between the plants in the row is 15-20 cm.
  2. With a tape scheme, two rows are planted with a distance of 20 cm and the next row spacing 45 cm wide. The distance in the rows between the individual plants is 20 cm.

In small areas, the row spacing can be reduced to 30 cm, and in very small country beds up to 20-25 cm, but the distance between the plants is increased.

In growing technology, the depth of planting plays a huge role. A shallow landing often leads to the fact that the heads come to the surface, begin to crumble, and the cloves begin to grow lateral roots, as a result, the crop grows of poor quality. And also landing to an insufficient depth leads to freezing in the winter period or defeat in time of spring frosts. With an unreasonably deep planting, germination of the crop is impeded, and this is dangerous by the delay in ripening and lower yields.

Deepening is directly dependent on planting time, tooth size and soil texture. The depth of planting during the winter is from 6-9 to 10-13 cm. Medium-sized teeth are planted to a depth of 7-8 cm, and larger ones into grooves 9-10 to 13 cm deep. On light sandy soils, we plant garlic 2-3 cm deeper.

Planting winter garlic is a responsible process on which plant growth, quality and yield level depend. The tooth needs to be planted in an upright position, and the bottom should be firmly in contact with the soil, so that when it is sprinkled with earth, it remains in the correct position and begins to root quickly. After planting, it is recommended to compact the soil, especially on light and loose soils. To protect against frost, the bed is covered with branches, straw or spruce branches.

Care

Care for this vegetable crop consists in basic agricultural technology, which includes:

  • loosening;
  • mulching;
  • watering;
  • top dressing.

Loosening

After the snow melted and the air temperature stabilized and the average daily temperature began to be 12-15 C, shelters were removed from the beds and the soil was easily loosened. Rowing aisles is carried out every two weeks, this favorably affects the growth of the plant and the formation of large heads. Loosening is done to a depth of 3-5 cm. This procedure will improve the process of gas exchange and nutrient intake.

Mulching

After the first loosening, the bed is mulched; for this, compost or moistened peat is used. This will improve the structure of the soil and will serve as the first top dressing for young plants.

Watering

You need to water winter garlic during a period of drought and high temperatures. In such conditions, watering is carried out in the morning, once a week. It is better to water in the aisle. In the period of rains and cooling, watering is reduced or completely eliminated. Waterlogging of the soil at low temperatures leads to decay and disease. A month before the harvest, watering is stopped.

Fertilizer

Topping up winter garlic is carried out three times per season. In the early spring after removing the shelter and loosening, and two in the summer with an interval between them of 14-21 days. For feeding, it is better to use organics and drugs with a mild effect:

  1. Salt (30 ml per 10 l of water) accelerates development, prevents yellowing and drying, use a solution of 3 l / sq.m. It disinfects the earth and prevents the reproduction and spread of the nematode, filamentous worms.
  2. Wood ash is used in a solution that is dry and dissolved in water. Dry ash is scattered on moist soil in the aisles of 1 square. m. enough 3-4 tbsp. l To prepare the solution, a glass of ash is added to 10 l of water, the plants obtained by fertilizing are watered.
  3. Ammonia. To prepare the solution in a bucket of water add 2 tbsp. l ammonia. Such dressing can spill a bed or spray plants. Ammonia will provide plants with nitrogen, and is also a preventative tool in pest control.

In industrial cultivation, mineral fertilizers such as urea, nitrophoska and superphosphate are used for top dressing. This type of top dressing must be applied in compliance with the dosage recommended by the manufacturer.

Conclusion

The basis for the productive cultivation of winter garlic is the proper planting. It is held in the fall, when the main processes on the beds are already completed. A careful approach to planting winter garlic, observing the timing of sowing and proper care allow you to get high yields.

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