Rules for planting lettuce in the Urals
Planting pepper in the Urals is a rather troublesome task. In a harsh climate, a thermophilic plant requires special attention. We will describe in detail how to properly land in the article.
Rules for planting lettuce in the Urals
To grow pepper in the Urals, you must follow the basic rules of agricultural technology:
- For sowing sweet pepper in the Urals, it is better to choose early-ripening or mid-ripening hybrids. This is due to the fact that such varieties are cold resistant. The process of ovary formation on hybrid varieties is more intense.
- Grow by seedling method.
- Strictly comply with the timing of planting pepper seedlings in the Urals.
- Ready seedlings must be planted in a greenhouse. This will help ensure comfortable conditions for the plant's vegetation in all weather conditions.
- Cultivate the culture with growth and development stimulants.
We grow seedlings
Plant fragrant peppers in the Urals begin with the cultivation of healthy seedlings. The timing of sowing seeds depends on which varieties are selected for planting. The growing season lasts more than 100 days. It is recommended to start sowing pepper for seedlings in the Urals in the second half of February.
Agronomists recommend only hybrid varieties to sow pepper for seedlings in the Urals. From early cultures plant:
- Winnie the Pooh;
- Dobrynya Niktich;
- Gingerbread man;
- The Knight.
From mid-season gardeners recommend planting:
- Alyosha Popovich;
Such species do not require treatment to disinfect. Before sowing, it is better to soak the selected seeds in growth stimulants. Mival Agro, Ecogel, Emistim have proven themselves quite well. This will increase the degree of germination and speed up the process of forming a healthy root system
Loose soil for pepper
Pepper doesn't like transplants. To reduce the stress from transplanting, planting pepper for seedlings in the Urals should be in light and loose soils.
Soil hydrogel should be added to the selected mixture for planting sweet pepper. So the plant will be protected from waterlogging or lack of moisture.
During the entire period of seed germination, it is necessary to maintain a room temperature of 24 - 26 ° C. The first shoots appear in 10-14 days.
If the columns of the thermometer range from 20 to 24 ° C, then the sprouts will appear no earlier than two weeks later.
If the room can not maintain the temperature at the required level, it is better to make a mini-greenhouse.
After the appearance of the first sprouts, the temperature in the daytime is maintained at 24 ° C. Night temperature should be in the range of 16 to 18 ° C.
Shoots require a lot of light. Daylight hours should last from 12 to 14 hours. For this, the room is equipped with additional fluorescent lamps.
When three real leaves appeared on the shoots of pepper, the plants should be transplanted. For this, it is necessary to prepare separate containers for each sprout. You need to plant seedlings of pepper in fertile soil. You can treat it with hydrogel. Before such treatment, the hydrogel should be soaked in a solution of mineral fertilizers.
Pepper loves moisture. Water the seedlings with warm, settled water. Waterlogging should not be allowed. Watering is recommended if necessary.
After transplanting seedlings, you need to start fertilizing the plant. The first fertilizer application is carried out 7-10 days after the pick. The interval between feeding should be one week.
For fertilizer during this period, it is best to use special complex preparations. They contain all the worlds and macronutrients. Good feedback was received by the composition of Kemira Suite.
The process of seedling getting used to the natural conditions of growth begins in the second half of March. Daily it is necessary to take out containers with seedlings on a glazed loggia or a covered balcony.
Preparation of warm beds
We only plant in prepared beds
Grown in warm beds. For refueling, manure is used along with straw and foliage, tops, and other organics.
The process of preparing beds in a greenhouse takes place in several stages:
- The ridges are covered with a transparent film. This will speed up the process of thawing the topsoil.
- The collected organics are scattered in the beds and spilled abundantly with a hot urea solution. The solution is prepared at the rate of one tablespoon with a slide of dry fertilizer per 10 liters of water.
- The beds are again covered with foil and left for several days.
- Organic matter is poured on top of the soil, enriched with mineral fertilizers and ash. The soil layer must be at least 10 cm.
Planting seedlings in a greenhouse
Transfer seedlings to the greenhouse begin in the last decade of May. At this time, buds are already on the sprouts.
Sprouts should be watered abundantly. Then gently pull it out of the container and drop it into the prepared holes. It is not recommended to deepen seedlings.
When planting seedlings in a permanent place, the planting scheme should be observed:
- Tall varieties are planted at a distance of at least 45 cm from each other. The distance between the rows is 70 cm.
- Low-growing hybrids are planted at a distance of 35-40 cm, aisles make 70 cm.
In the Urals, the probability of frost remains until mid-June. Agronomists recommend the use of additional shelters inside the greenhouse.
For this, arcs are installed, a dense material is pulled. On warm sunny days, the covering film is removed, and returned to the place at night.
Completely remove additional shelter is possible only in the third decade of June.
Pepper loves fertile soils. Fertilization during pepper transplantation in the Urals depends on the state of the soil.
To fertilize poor soils, a mixture of organic and mineral fertilizers is used.
As organic take rotted compost. Of the finished drugs, you can use Kemira Lux.
Good and strong seedlings
Planting pepper for seedlings in the Urals is to create comfortable conditions for the growing season at any stage. Plant care should be organized taking into account the characteristics of the selected variety.
Fertilizing helps to increase the yield. Regular dressing of the culture is carried out as follows:
- Weekly root and foliar top dressing. The use of complex fertilizers is recommended. The use of drugs must be strictly in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.
- The use of nutritional mixtures with a lasting effect. Such fertilizers provide the supply of nutrients to the plant constantly.
Pepper does not like heavy and dense soil. This leads to a lack of air in the root system of the culture.
Breathability of the soil should be ensured by loosening additives. You can use sawdust, hay, crushed bark of trees.
Mulching will help in solving this problem. The root zone is covered with a layer of foliage, straw or a layer of humus.
Improper watering affects the plant:
- Lack of moisture leads to falling ovaries;
- Excessive moisture provokes the development of diseases.
The signal for irrigation should be slightly dried soil. Water the plants only at the root. For irrigation use water heated to a temperature of 33 - 35 ° C.
In the Urals, pollination is difficult. To prevent the falling of ovaries, plants are treated with stimulators of fruit formation. In specialized stores offer the drug Bud.
It is not recommended to plant varieties of sweet and bitter pepper at the same time. This will result in crossbreeding of hybrids. The fruits will have a bittersweet taste.
Seedlings susceptible to disease
The climatic conditions of the Urals do not allow harvesting on the numerous shoots of the plant. The formation of bushes stimulates abundant fruiting.
Form bushes as follows:
- Minor shoots are removed as they appear.
- The number of upper stepchildren depends on the amount of light and the duration of the summer season. Under adverse conditions, the pepper is formed into three stems.
- As the crop ripens, the fertilized shoots are removed.
- Remove shoots with signs of disease development.
Pepper is a rather fragile plant. Under the weight of the fruit, the sprouts can break. To prevent this, plants are tied.
Garter is carried out with twine under the first branch. Next, each escape separately.
Under the fruits, which are located close to the ground, lay the planks. So protect them from the development of rot.
Diseases and Pests
Due to the climate, planting crops in the Urals are susceptible to tick and aphid invasion. Among the diseases, white and gray rot are a danger to the plant.
Pest control begins at the first sign of the appearance of harmful neighbors.
- In the period when there are no flowers and fruits yet, the plant is treated with insecticides. Among them, Actellik performed well.
- Pest control, which appeared in a later period, requires the use of more concentrated formulations. You can use Fitover.
- The use of folk remedies does not produce tangible results.
Seedlings are affected by fungal diseases. Signs of the development of diseases are wet spots on the leaves, fruits, and at the base of the shoots.
To effectively combat diseases, preventive measures are taken:
- Comply with crop rotation rules. To do this, annually change the soil in greenhouses.
- After harvesting, all residues are burned.
- The collection of affected fruits is carried out separately. They are being destroyed.
- The greenhouses are regularly ventilated to prevent condensation.
Pepper fruits are ready for use at the stage of technical maturity. During this period, peppercorns are green.
Gardeners do not allow full ripening of fruits on the bushes. During the ripening period, new ovaries do not appear on the bushes. The yield will be scarce.
Harvested technically mature fruits will reach their biological maturity within a week. To do this, peppers are placed in a dark room and maintain a temperature of at least 20 ° C. If the temperature is lower, then the fruits will ripen in a month.
Harvesting is carried out according to the following rules:
- The fruits are harvested dry. Morning dew can cause pepper to rot during storage.
- You can not break off or try to tear the fruit from the bush. This will damage the plant. Pepper needs to be cut.
Growing pepper in the Urals requires careful care. Compliance with the rules of agricultural technology ensures a rich harvest of fragrant peppers, even in harsh climatic conditions.