Rules for planting grapes with cuttings in autumn
To get a good grape harvest, you need to know how to care for the vine, how grapes are planted with cuttings in the fall, and which diseases lie in wait.
Rules for planting grapes with cuttings in autumn
Features of Cherenkovanie
To grow grapes, it must be propagated. Reproduction occurs by seed and vegetatively. The seed method is used by breeders. Under normal conditions, a vegetative method is used, which is divided into such subspecies:
- tap of the vine;
- planting cuttings.
When grafting in the vine, the entire biological complex from the main bush is preserved.
This is due to the ability of the grapes to regenerate, i.e. complete healing of wounds on the roots, petioles of leaves, on the stems and other parts of the vine. Planting grape grapes with cuttings in autumn is easier.
Before planting grapes with cuttings in the fall, the vine is cut and undergoes preparation. The process of harvesting cuttings:
- with a ripened vine;
- vine length 1, 2 m, thickness 8-10 mm;
- white root slice;
- 3-4 buds on the selected vine.
The vine should crack slightly when bent. In the section, the main healthy root is white, and the young root is green. When pressed, the eyes do not crumble in a healthy vine.
In order to plant grapes with cuttings in autumn, they should not be dried or wrapped in polyethylene. Not enough moisture destroys the cut vine, and poor ventilation will give an impetus to rotting of the trunk. For planting, grape cuttings are selected in the fall, with a bud on a segment of shoots.
The rooting procedure is carried out. Separate the selected vine from the root, cut into pieces (cuttings), 35-45 cm long, taking into account 3 buds on each. Slices are made near the eye with a sharp knife or razor.
For 48 hours, the cuttings are soaked in clean water, at room temperature. After that, the upper section is dipped in paraffin and the lower end is dipped in a special solution with stimulants (left for a day).
After the procedures, the grapes take root better. Storage and breeding with this material in spring is possible.
After kilchevaniya on the sprout roots and callus appear. Cut vine first sit in a container with natural heating. For this, a substrate is prepared in which there are steamed sawdust from hardwood, pretreated with potassium permanganate. Wet moss sphagnum, hydrogel and coarse wet sand are added to the sawdust.
The substrate nourishes the process with moisture, supports it, and the formation of callus is faster. The substrate needs to be watered, then roots form quickly on the cuttings. This method of propagation and rooting of cuttings is simple and effective.
Grapes are not recommended to be planted in marshy soil.
Soil with a large amount of humus and a depth of groundwater up to 2.5-3 m is selected. Stony and dark soils are also suitable, they perfectly absorb excess radiation from the sun.
Plants take root poorly in wetlands. The lack of oxygen in the soil will destroy it.
Ripens quickly on light-colored sandy soil. Shoots quickly grow on black soil or red soil.
At home, it is better to plant the vine in light soil (super sandstone, chestnut soil or gray earth). He quickly warms up. If the land is heavy at the landing site, sand or other available drainage material is added to it. To improve the quality of the soil, rotted manure is added. Soils with copious amounts of salt are watered and drained before planting.
In the places of old vineyards, plant new plants 3-4 years after uprooting. Ventilated southern slopes of the hills, closed from winter drafts, are well suited. To plant effectively in the soil prepared by the plantation. This method consists in the complete transshipment of soil and its fertilizer.
The growth and development of the plant depends on the autumn planting. There are two ways: vertical and tilted.
For planting at an angle, the roots are trimmed to 10 cm, under the second node. Plant seedlings in a south-north direction (for vertical two strip trellis). Prepare trenches up to 1 m wide and 50 cm deep.
So that there is a lot of space for roots, fertilizers with minerals and humus are used. Crushed stone or fine gravel is suitable for drainage. It mixes with fertile soil mixture and is poured into a trench. After this, the seedling is placed in a ditch and successively sprinkled with humus and ground with crushed stone. The top soil layer (1 centimeter) remains without drainage. To plant, maintaining a distance between seedlings of up to 2.5 m, and between rows of up to 3 m.
For good photosynthesis, it is important that sunlight falls on all grape leaves. Therefore, when using trellis with a visor, the landing is done in the east-west direction.
Single cuttings are planted nearby on a common support or each separately, on an individual support. The distance depends on the characteristics of the variety (from 1 to 3 m).
The root system of the vineyard develops quickly, this is taken into account when planting in a permanent place and the necessary distance between the cuttings is clearly maintained, so as not to transplant and injure the plant.
Preparing for the winter
Protect plants from frost
Rooting and cultivation begins from the first days of October and until frosts. To prevent freezing of young roots, the following measure is taken:
- prepare cut plastic bottles;
- cover them with cuttings;
- abundant watering is done previously (4 buckets of water for each);
- the soil around is loosened and mulched.
Before the onset of severe frosts, the young seedling is covered with covering materials (sawdust, mowed grass, needles, etc.). Or a hill is made around the plant, from the adjacent soil, to a height of 35-40 cm. Such a shelter allows the bush to develop and breathe. The next season will make a good grape bush.
Landing in the northern areas
The lower part of the shank penetrates into the soil up to 50 cm - this prevents freezing of the root system, and rooting is better. For planting in such conditions, the rhizome on the seedling is selected up to 3 cm.
Care after landing
After planting the cuttings in the ground, the hole is compacted and carefully watered. Unwaxed plants in dry weather require constant attention, hilling and watering. This is done before the first shoots appear.
Mulching and 2-time loosening with simultaneous watering are carried out. Layers of the earth do not need to be turned over. It is important not to shift organic fertilizers around the bottom of the vine (in the first 3 years after planting).
To form a bush, 2 buds are left on the handle, after shoot growth to 8 cm. The remaining shoots break off. All surface roots are removed. This is called katarovka.
For grapes, gray or white rot, anthraciosis, odium, and other viral, fungal diseases are dangerous.
Despite the fact that planted cuttings in the fall better cope with the infection than spring ones, preventive measures are carried out: spraying with liquid from copper sulfate, fungicide and Bordeaux mixture.
In order to avoid transmission of infection from other trees, grapes are planted separately, away from orchards. The near-stem zone is carefully cleaned; weed propagation and the accumulation of fallen leaves or fruits are not allowed in it.
Planting grape cuttings in the fall, planting new varieties and getting a rich harvest is possible while observing melted viticulture. Tasty and healthy bunches will be a reward for your efforts.