Rules for planting apple trees in the Urals
Despite the cold weather, planting of apple trees in the Urals is possible. Not all varieties are suitable for this region. It is necessary to plant only frost-resistant varieties that will bear fruit even after a cold winter.
Rules for planting apple trees in the Urals
In the Urals, winter-hardy varieties are cultivated, the fruiting of which occurs in summer, autumn or winter. The cultivation of any apple variety depends on the climate of the Ural region and the timing of fruiting. Using the description of each species makes it easier to make the right choice.
This is the most resistant to frost variety related to the Ural breeding. The tree grows up to 5 m in height with a wide pyramidal crown. The mass of each apple is in the range of 100-200 g.
The peel is yellow, with a green sheen. The pulp is white, juicy. The fruits are sour to taste, but this does not prevent them from being in demand among gardeners. The first apples ripen in September.
Full maturity, after which the fruits are collected for storage, occurs in October. Antonovka retains its characteristics for only 2-3 months.
In the conditions of this region, the White Bulk, belonging to the Ural breeding, is often grown. This variety is not suitable for storage in the winter, because it deteriorates after 2 weeks. Tree height - 3 m.
The crown is oval, compact. The weight of an individual apple is 100 g. Its shape is round, and the peel is green. The first harvest is carried out in early August. From each tree, up to 130 kg of crop is harvested.
The variety refers to frost-resistant crops with medium maturity. Variety Description:
- tree height - 2-3 m;
- elongated crown;
- light green fruits reach a weight of 220 g;
- pulp with a sweet aftertaste and caramel flavor;
- fruits are stored for a long time - for 5 months;
- harvesting is carried out in August;
- high productivity - 130-170 kg per tree.
Well suited for growing in the Urals, as the grade is frost-resistant. The variety ripens at the end of summer, and its fruits are stored only until October.
A papier needs planting pollinators next to it (e.g. Welsey). A thick pyramidal crown is formed on a tall tree (up to 4 m). Fruits are yellow-green, rounded in shape, with a ribbed peel. The weight of each apple is from 100 to 120 g. The yield is good - up to 200 kg of fruits are harvested from each tree.
The undersized variety belongs to winter crops. She was bred in America. Fruit collection dates are at the end of September. The crown of the tree is pyramidal. Oval apples reach a weight of 100 g.
Shelf life of fruits is good. If you harvest in September-October, it will be stored until January. The disadvantages of this variety are low productivity (up to 100 kg per tree) and average frost resistance.
Some apple trees begin to bloom quickly
In order for apple cultivation in the Urals to give a good result, planting is carried out according to certain rules. First, the gardener chooses the variety that suits him.
After that, they begin to determine the timing of planting seedlings. It is important to choose a suitable place for planting, so that the fruitiness of the tree is maximum.
High survival rate of seedlings in the Urals is observed after planting an apple tree in spring or autumn. The optimal time is September or October, when leaves fall from the trees. This will allow the apple tree to develop with the onset of heat in the spring. Autumn planting has a drawback - if it gets cold early, the root system will suffer.
In the Urals, landing in the spring. Wait until the snow has melted, but the buds on the trees have not yet blossomed. Over the summer, the roots of the apple tree will get stronger and will be ready for winter frosts.
Landing is carried out in sunny areas. Try to choose places on the south side of the garden. Provide apple protection against drafts. Seedlings are best placed on hills so that moisture does not stagnate in the root system.
For apple trees, loamy soil with a low acid content is suitable. A good development of the culture is observed if there are enough mineral components in the soil: nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Due to this, you will increase the yield of each variety.
Groundwater should not come close to the surface of the earth. If you grow tall varieties, their depth should be within 6 m. For low-growing crops, 3 m is enough.
Preparing the site for planting involves removing weeds and digging the entire site. Depth - 1 bayonet shovel. Feed the soil with organic fertilizers (10 kg of humus or 3 kg of sawdust per 1 m²). If the soil is with a high level of acidity, lime (3 kg per 1 m²) is added to it. Sand is added to clay.
A hole is prepared a few weeks before planting. During this time, she will settle. The top layer of the earth is not thrown away, but left to bury seedlings. 5 kg of humus and 10 liters of warm water are poured into the pit. Depending on the size of the root system, the diameter of the hole should be between 50 and 90 cm.
If the site is lowland, in order to avoid moisture accumulation, drainage is installed. For this, crushed stone is used. In 20-30 minutes before planting, one part of the top soil is poured inside. For greater fertility of the earth, it is mixed with humus in a ratio of 1: 1.
Plant apple trees in the Urals according to the proposed instructions:
- the seedlings are straightened so that there are no knots. To the left or to the right of it a support is driven in, to which a tree will then be tied;
- put a seedling in a hole and sprinkle it with earth. To eliminate voids in the root system, the soil is periodically tamped. The root neck is left above the ground;
- they tie a young tree to a support and water it with 15 liters of warm water;
- tall varieties are planted at a distance of 7 m from each other. For undersized crops, a distance of 4 m is sufficient. If the distance between the trees is not enough, their growth will slow down and yield will be low. To plant colon-shaped varieties, keep a distance of 1 m. Between the rows leave 2 m.
The right recommendations will help grow a good tree.
It is not enough to plant seedlings and wait for a good harvest. Caring for crops in the Urals is easy if you know the basic principles. Care in cold regions should be more effective than in central or southern parts of the country.
To ensure growth and fruiting, the tree must be provided with high-quality watering, regular top dressing. It is also important to shelter apple trees for the winter. If you grow dense crown varieties, pruning will help improve yield.
The first stage of care is watering. There are several basic rules for its implementation:
- only warm water is allowed to be infused - cold water provokes deformation of the root system;
- regular watering of young apple trees - twice a week;
- adult trees are watered only in the summer, adding 20 liters of warm water under each;
- 3 days after irrigation, the near-stem circle is loosened - this will provide the soil with good aeration;
- in the root zone mulch the soil to retain moisture in the soil.
The first fertilizer application is carried out the next year after planting. Top dressing is applied in spring or autumn. If the summer is hot, nitrogen substances are allowed to be introduced once. Before flowering, mineral fertilizers are used in the form of ammonium nitrate (40 g per 6 l of water).
The next top dressing takes place in September, a week before the harvest. During this period, use humus or potassium (4 kg of organics or 200 g of minerals per tree).
To increase productivity a week before harvesting, the ground part of the tree is watered with nutrients. 400 g of complex fertilizer (Kemira or Azofoska) are mixed with 10 l of water. Under each seedling pour 3 liters of solution.
Cropping and shaping the crown
If the seedling was planted in the spring, the main shoot is removed. With autumn planting, this can not be done, because in winter the tree will freeze. In the first year, all inflorescences are removed, so that the culture saves energy during frosts.
Sanitary pruning is carried out in the spring. At this time, all diseased and damaged branches are removed to improve seedling development. Anti-aging pruning is needed in the fall with an interval of 2-3 years.
Remember to shape the crown to make the tree look beautiful and healthy. The first procedure occurs in the second year after planting. Most shoots are removed to stimulate the development of branches.
Vaccinations are done at the end of July. First, summer varieties are planted, and then autumn and winter. The most common method of budding is over the bark. On the cuttings, all the foliage is removed, leaving only the petioles.
After this, the handle is inserted into a T-shaped incision, which is located on a stock. The attachment point is wrapped with tape or plastic wrap without affecting the kidney. To minimize evaporation, the incision is treated with garden var.
Shelter for the winter
You will get quality apples if you provide trees with protection for the winter. To do this, tie the trunk with a bag, and place the crown under the film or agrofibre.
The trunk circle is covered with mulch using rotted manure. Its height should be at least 10 cm. Fallen foliage is poured over this layer.
Pest and Disease Control
Caring for a tree also means protecting it from diseases and pests. A common parasite attacking apple trees growing in the Urals is considered to be the moth. If it is not destroyed, it will ruin the crop at the stage of ovary formation.
Prevention from the codling moth consists in destroying dry foliage and digging up the trunk circle. Bordeaux liquid (100 g per 10 l of water) helps to fight this pest, with the help of which monthly sprayings are carried out.
Scab is isolated from diseases. Copper sulfate solution (200 g per 10 l of water) or onion husk tincture (500 g per 5 l of water) helps to cope with it. They are treated with trees every 14 days.