Rules for growing pepper at home from seeds
Today, growing peppers at home on the windowsill is far from uncommon. You can enjoy a natural product all year round. Obtaining a good crop will allow the observance of agrotechnical rules, which even a beginner can easily master.
Growing pepper at home from seeds
There are no special differences between the cultivation of different varieties of pepper. There are 3 varieties of pepper:
Regardless of the variety, all peppers are demanding of the temperature regime, illumination and watering. Choose a variety in accordance with their taste preferences and the purpose of cultivation. For fresh consumption, you can use only 1 variety. The most popular among the varieties grown on the windowsill are the sharp varieties: Falcon Beak, Carolina ripper.
Among sweet varieties, bell peppers are usually preferred. Red and black are not grown in our latitudes. These varieties are cultivated in the tropics, and the product is obtained by drying immature fruits.
Soil preparation and tanks
To grow a delicious bitter or sweet pepper at home, you need to choose the right soil, flowerpots and carry out the necessary care.
Growing pepper at home begins with the preparation of a fertile soil composition. You can buy ready-made soil for nightshade or cook it yourself. It must meet 3 criteria:
Soil suitable for pepper should consist of: sand, sod-leaf soil and black soil or peat. Components are mixed in proportions of 2: 1: 1. For 10 kg of soil mixture, add 1 tbsp. l wood ash in combination with superphosphate fertilizer. The resulting composition should be disinfected by pouring a solution of manganese.
It is recommended to roast any soil before planting plants at home in the oven to destroy harmful microorganisms and pest larvae. Initially, sowing of seeds is carried out in a common pot. In the future, do not select too large containers for landing. Firstly, they will take up too much space, and secondly, the sprouts will develop poorly. The root system of the bush is located in the upper layer of soil, so the lower, which is not used, can begin to shed. As a result, all specimens can become infected with a fungal disease that spreads rapidly among all seedlings.
Preparing seeds for planting
Growing seeds in a pot requires a careful approach to the preparation of seed. To begin with, the seeds should be sorted out and soaked in a solution of manganese. This process helps to separate empty and full seeds and sanitize them.
To sprouts appeared faster, the seeds are placed in a wet piece of gauze for several days. When the first sprout appears, you can begin to plant. If you plan to transplant further seeds in the open ground, they are planted in February-March. The first pick is carried out after 20 days, when 3 full leaves appear.
We plant in separate pots
Seeds are planted in pre-prepared containers. Pre-planting containers should be washed with soap in warm water or treated with a solution of potassium permanganate. The containers should be completely filled with soil, not reaching the edge of 2 cm. We plant seeds with a step of 3 cm. Sprinkle with soil on top.
Pots should be covered with foil or containers of suitable size and set aside in a warm place. When planting several different varieties, they should be somehow designated. Shelter is removed when the first leaves appear.
Caring for pepper seedlings at home involves the implementation of certain agricultural activities. In the first 7 days, rhizome formation occurs. The temperature regime during this period should be 14-16 ℃. After it should be increased to 25 ℃ in the daytime and 17 ℃ in the dark. Within a month you can observe the appearance of the first true leaflets. Over a month, watering is carried out once every 7 days and seedlings are fed (for example, with ash, complex fertilizers for seedlings)
Watering should be strictly limited, otherwise a fungus can develop quickly. It is not recommended to water the plant with cold liquid, it should be at room temperature. If there is not enough moisture, the sprouts will drop the leaves and wither. To put pots with seedlings should be on the southern windows, otherwise you will have to organize additional lighting. It should be uniform, so you still need to acquire fluorescent lamps.
Stepsoning and picking
The formation of the crown allows you to achieve good yields and remove extra sprouts that only take away the strength of the pepper, but do not affect the fruiting. When pinching, peppers also pinch the final part of the main root. This allows you to activate the growth of the lateral roots. This procedure is carried out when 2-3 leaves appear, during transplantation from the total capacity into separate pots.
The seedlings are carefully pulled out of a common vessel and, holding with two fingers on the stem, are transplanted into a pre-prepared pot with soil. Previously in the soil should be made a recess of not more than 5 mm. The roots are placed in a recess and gently press the soil around it with your fingers or a spoon. If necessary, add a little earth to the pot and water the seedlings.
For a week, transplanted plants should be placed in a room that is protected from the sun. Too bright light activates the biosynthesis process in the deciduous part, which provokes weakening of the rhizome. After 2 weeks, you can carry out the first feeding after transplantation. Wood ash or superphosphates can be used for this. It is recommended in the pot, after transplanting, to fill up not the earth, but calcined sand.
Seedlings love the sun
Care for pepper seedlings at home also consists in hardening plants. When the heat comes, plants need to begin to temper with sunlight and gradually lower the temperature. This will help grow healthy plants. Start your stay in the open air from one hour. Practice hardening should begin in the morning, when the sun's rays do not scorch so much and can not cause noticeable harm to the leaf part.
At air temperatures below 12 ℃ hardening should not be carried out. You can open the window, but it is not recommended to leave the seedlings in the fresh air, otherwise it will die. The hardening process allows you to get the fruit for half a month earlier.
When growing hot pepper in a pot, there is a risk that the plants may not get enough pollination, and the fruits will not develop properly, so it is recommended to carry it out yourself. During flowering, shake the bush so that the pollen falls from the upper flowers to the lower ones or transfer the pollen from one flower to another with a cotton swab.
Diseases and Pests
Like all nightshade, pepper is a favorite dish for many pests. The most common are:
- spider mite;
- Colorado beetle.
Spider mites and aphids can be combated with tobacco infusion, special traps, or Fitoverm. Aphids are also fought with special traps, on which sweet syrup is applied. They fight snails by adding fertilizer from freshly slaked lime or a solution from bird droppings to the soil. The Colorado potato beetle is fought using all known methods. With a small number of them, pests are collected manually. You can prepare a solution from the beetles themselves and spray them with leaves of plants, but very carefully so as not to burn.
When growing a sharp or sweet variety of nightshade in the apartment, most often, the cause of the spread of diseases is improper care or infection through the soil. Brown spotting is characterized by wilting of the lower part of the foliage. Infection occurs through the soil. The fight against such an ailment involves the thorough removal of all damaged plants and a change in soil composition.
You should not plant nearby bushes of hot and sweet pepper, otherwise the second will also be sharp. For the entire season, fertilizing should be done 5 times to get a full crop. At home, even a person who has started breeding plants from scratch can grow nightshade.