Rules for growing orchids Dendrobium
Orchid Dendrobium (Dendrobium) belongs to the genus of the orchid family, plants are distinguished by the shape and variety of flowers, the characteristics of growth and development. Having studied the rules of care, transplantation and reproduction of the Dendrobium orchid, you can grow a beautiful flower at home.
Rules for growing orchids Dendrobium
Dendrobium (Dendrobium) unpretentious variety, suitable for growing at home. The name Dendrobium in translation means that it grows on a tree. Dendrobium has about 1200 varieties that have their own characteristics. The root system of the plant is represented by a rhizome, which is an shoot combining pseudobulbs.
Dendrobium orchids at home grow from 40 to 90 cm in height, cylindrical pseudobulbs are located on the stem, lanceolate leaves are 5-10 cm. Peduncles grow with 1-4 flowers. In nature, the colors of Dendrobium orchids are different: white, yellow, orange, lilac and others. Homeland - Australia, South Asia, New Zealand.
Types of Orchids
For growing a house, indoor varieties of the Dendrobium Phalaenopsis and Dendrobium Noble variety (Royal Blue, Black Beautiful, Noble White) are suitable.
The flowers of the Dendrobium Noble and Bukeshotsvesvesny cultivars grow and usually do not drop foliage, but this only happens in some cases.
Other types of orchids Dendrobium are common in the temperate warm zone: Nestor, Polar Fire, Mini, Starclass, Compactum, Sen Red, Parish, Moniliform.
Variety Pierara represents a family of orchids, takes off leaves before flowering. This species belongs to the moderately cold temperature zone. During the leafless phase of the orchid - abandoned plants, at the end of the dormant phase, leaves appear on them.
King Dendrobium (Kingianum), a rocky orchid - has stems of a cylindrical shape, covered with white scales, grow up to 25-30 cm. The length of Kingi leaves is 10 cm, width - 2-3 cm, they are large and thin. On the upper peduncle, 5-7 flowers grow, their colors are white, with a pink tint, purple. Inflorescences consist of 2-9 flowers, with a diameter of up to 1 cm. In spring, when sprouts appear, watering and fertilizing, during dormancy, stop irrigation.
Berry ode - a bushy form of the hybrid, blooms from late spring to winter. The flowers are obtained in different shades: from white to dark crimson. Grows up to 30 cm, up to 9 flowers appear on inflorescences.
The second name of the plant is Dendrobium bumpy (Bigigum). The leaves of the plant are dense, hard, the pseudobulb grows to 60 cm. The flowering time of the Dendrobium Phalaenopsis is 3-4 months. Phalaenopsis is a plant that loves warmth, good lighting and humidity of 50%. When the buds of the pseudobulb are awakened, a new shoot is formed.
Stardust has a thin and long pseudobulb: up to 50 cm long, 1.5-2 cm wide. The leaves are lanceolate, flowers are pale yellow or red-orange with dark veins, reaching 6 cm in diameter.
Crowded dendrobium (Aggregate, Lindley) - it turns out to grow pseudobulbs up to 7 cm in length, have yellowish, furrowed colors. Single leaf up to 6 cm long, dark green. The inflorescence has 5-15 flowers of golden or yellow color with orange lines. Flowers are fragrant up to 4 cm in diameter, smell of honey. Coded leaves of pale green grow up to 10 cm in length.
Variety Farmeri blooms in spring
Farmery grows to 30-45 cm, pseudobulbs are erect. The length of the leaves reaches 8-15 cm, grow at the top of the bulb for 2-4 units. Peduncle hanging down to 20-30 cm in length, several peduncles can be produced simultaneously. Inflorescences consist of 14-35 flowers with a diameter of up to 5 cm. Flowering period is spring.
Apollo is a hybrid with dense pseudobulbs and green leaves. On peduncles several flowers with a pleasant smell ripen.
Hibiki has beautiful pink flowers of small sizes with an orange throat. Flowers are located along the pseudobulb, along its entire length. Bulb height - 12 cm.
Harveyanum needs cultivation in light, airy and permeable soil for orchids, height from 15 to 23 cm, flowering time - from mid-January to December.
Emma, Sonya - 30-60 cm high, there are white, pink and gold colors.
Varieties of Nobile (Mobile, nobile), Nobi and Akatsuki have a lilac color and a light lip, the flower grows up to 4 cm. The aroma of Dendrobium Nobi, Nobile, Akatsuki is weak floral, saturated in the morning in a sunny place. Plants contain 3-4 pseudobulbs, covered with flowers.
According to the description, the Papilios dendrobium flower grows from 30 to 45 cm, the soil is light, water- and breathable for orchids, blooms from January to December. Pseudobulbs are 30-45 cm long, leaves are 4-5 cm long, a flower is 4-7 cm in diameter.
Nobile Irene Smile
Nobile Iren Smile (Dendrobium Nobi, Nobile, Nobilis, Nobile, Star Klass Lilak) - white room hybrids, flowering time about 12 weeks, height 50 cm, have fleshy stems, pseudobulbs and green leaves. Adolescent plants are used in Chinese medicine to strengthen immunity and relieve physical fatigue, drugs are available in capsules.
Loddigesa has a color from pink to purple, height 10-20 cm, pseudobulbs 8-15 cm long. 1 flower grows on a peduncle. The plant will bloom from February to June with a peak in April. In nature, there are cases when Loddizea does not bloom, it should be forced to form buds and buds.
Growing a plant at home is easy.
Feng Shui supports the cultivation of orchids at home, based on it, the plants are female flowers. Dendrobium at home is easy to grow under special conditions and requirements.
Dendrobium is thermophilic, in winter the temperature is 15-20 ° C during the day, and 6-12 ° C at night.
In summer, for the Dendrobium orchid, the temperature in the daytime is 18-25 ° C, at night - 14 20 ° C.
The temperature during rest in winter at night is 15-18 ° C, in the daytime 20-25 ° C.
The east and west sides of the house will do, darkening is required on the south window.
In spring and summer, water well during growth, the soil should be moist. In winter, watering the orchid is required less often, the dry content is observed.
Studying the rules of transplanting, choosing a pot, substrate, watering will help you figure out how to properly care for the Dendrobium orchid.
Transplantation of orchids Dendrobium is carried out every 3 years, subject to:
- compaction or decomposition of the substrate;
- the container is filled with roots;
- acidification or salinization of the substrate from irrigation;
- rotting of the roots;
- after the purchase, the orchid is transplanted.
It is worth replacing the plants carefully, since the roots of orchids are fragile.
For transplantation, opaque pots are selected. It will be possible to transplant an orchid subject to the following rules:
- the orchid is kept in a solution of succinic acid for 10-15 minutes (the tablet is dissolved in 1 liter of warm water);
- the roots are filled with moisture and change color to greenish-milky;
- after they are dried for 30 minutes and placed on a substrate in a pot;
- pseudobulbs are placed closer to the edge;
- the root neck remains on top;
- if the roots are evenly spaced, the gaps are covered with bark.
Water the Dendrobium after 3-14 days, it depends on the size of the roots and wound healing from damage received during the transplant.
Bark must be sanitized before use.
Caring for Dendrobium involves selecting a substrate when planting. The main components are:
- medium sized pine bark;
- crushed foam;
- broken brick.
Before use, the substrate is disinfected - spilled with boiling water and dried.
The consequences of improper care
The cause of the problems is improper care, they will need resuscitation.
Damage to the root system occurs due to improper care:
- excessive wetting of the substrate;
- overfeeding with fertilizers;
- caked substrate;
- lack of watering;
- overheating of the plant.
If the orchid is in the pot tightly, the roots are in order, if they are brown, hollow, slimy, it is worthwhile to solve the problem. The flower is pulled out of the pot, roots with damage or decay should be trimmed. Then they are sprayed with a solution of phytosporin, the ground part is also subject to processing. Orchid should be planted in a new soil after the moisture has dried.
The trunk rots
The trunk begins to rot from the bottom up. This happens due to the development of root rot. If signs of the disease are detected, phytosporin treatment and transplantation into new soil are used.
Due to improper care of the orchid, Dendrobium leaves fade and turn yellow, they become lethargic and fall away. Main reasons:
- spider mite attack;
- the leaves begin to rot due to waterlogging;
- tissues atrophy with a lack of moisture;
- root damage often occurs.
If the leaves of the orchid become soft and look like a rag, they are cut off and the places of the cuts are treated with a fungicide, watering is stopped until the soil dries to 2/3 of the capacity of the container.
Cracks begin to appear in the following cases:
- if the plant fell, the leaf is bent - mechanical damage begins to appear;
- excess nitrogen - to save the roots are removed from the substrate, you need new land for transplantation, for 3 months they are fed with potash and phosphorus fertilizers, restoration will last a year;
- temperature difference, hypothermia after watering;
- interruptions in irrigation lead to leaf damage.
Leaves turn yellow
Errors in watering can lead to yellowing of leaves
Causes of yellowing:
- flower is aging;
- exposed to diseases and pests;
- a chemical burn appeared on the stem or other parts of the plant with fertilizers or growth stimulants;
- past stresses: relocation, lack of lighting, humidity, unfavorable air temperature, irrigation errors.
If the leaves of the plant turn yellow, steps are taken for its treatment and rehabilitation.
Loss of buds and flowers
Reasons for dropping buds:
- habitat change;
- lack of lighting;
- erroneous watering;
Planting orchids should not be next to the fruit, they emit ethylene, which affects the aging of flowers and buds.
Sticky drops may appear on leaves, bulbs and young shoots. The reasons for their occurrence: the attraction of insects, protection against external factors, excess fertilizer, irrigation errors and the presence of pests.
Dendrobium is propagated by children, by cuttings and by dividing the bush.
Reproduction by children
Baby - a small process with the beginnings of roots.
Separate and put the baby off:
- if the baby has grown to 5 cm, it is cut;
- roots nourish with moisture;
- a baby is placed in a half-filled pot;
- substrate is added and compacted;
- the growth point remains on top.
The sapling is fixed with a support, the conditions of the greenhouse are not needed. It is required to spray the top layer of the substrate between irrigations. Closer to autumn, children with roots grow on stems, they should be separated and planted in new pots.
Reproduction using seeds has its own characteristics. Seeds are sown on a nutrient medium in special flasks, grown in a laboratory.
How to split a bush:
- pseudobulbs are separated from the parent plant;
- cuts are made into cuttings with 2-3 nodes, 10 cm long;
- Landing is carried out on raw sphagnum, in a closed zip-package area or greenhouse.
The temperature is maintained at a level of 20-25 ° C, ventilation and watering of the planted are required. After 2-3 weeks, the plant takes root on the cuttings, then they should be planted in pots with a substrate.
Cuttings at home
Propagating by cuttings is not difficult.
Cuttings are a method of propagation of Dendrobium, while trimming the apical part of the shoot is done or the shoot is divided into parts of 10-12 cm long. The cuttings are aged in a root solution for 24 hours, then root in a sterile container, water is added to the bottom of the container. After a few months, the plants will have a developed root system, they are ready for planting.
Propagation of Dendrobium by cuttings at home is an easy way. It will not be quick to root the cuttings, the process will last about six months, this is the negative side of the propagation method.
Another way to propagate the plant is obtained by cutting off the faded stems of the plant at ground level. After they are laid horizontally on wet sand and kept moist for several months.
Of great importance for orchids is the proper care of them, thanks to him, plants are preserved from diseases.
For the treatment of fungal infections, the plant is treated with the fungicide Ridomil Gold.
- Phyllosticosis - yellow spots appear, darken, leaves dry and rot.
- Fusarium spotting harms leaves, pseudobulbs, flowers, buds. The causative agent of the disease penetrates into the orchid through damaged leaves, roots. Dendrobium is not completely cured; it is isolated from flowers, sheared and disinfected. In spring or summer, the flower is transplanted into new soil and a pot.
- Gray rot is manifested by small watery spots on flowers and buds, provoked by a fungus of the genus Botryties.
- Infection with cercospore occurs from a yellow spot on the sheet below, after which it spreads to its upper part. Spots cover the entire leaf, as a result, it falls off the plant.
- Botritis - gray spots appear on the leaves and pseudobulbs. The disease occurs due to increased humidity, poor ventilation, excess nitrogen, and poor lighting. The diseased orchid is removed from the plants and treated with a fungicide.
Bacterial rot is treated with copper-based fungicide; copper sulfate is suitable for treatments. Parts with damage are cut off and removed, the remaining parts must be treated with fungicide 2-3 times with a frequency of 10 days.
Bacterial rot manifests itself in the form of brown spots, less often watery with a yellowish color. The plant will be revived by spraying it and around it with a fungicide before and after wet weather. After identifying the disease, the infected area is excised and treated with a fugicide.
Pseudomonase will be treated by destroying bacteria and eliminating their localization in the environment, where they can persist and infect the plant. The infection on the leaves is treated with hydrogen peroxide.
Surfaces must be treated with chlorine, it is important to treat plants in the neighborhood, as the disease develops rapidly.
Viral diseases develop slowly and cannot be treated. They appear in the form of spots, the leaves deteriorate gradually and die off. It will not work to save the plant, so it is thrown away and other plants are kept, the room is subject to wet cleaning with disinfection.
- spider mite;
- scale shield;
They harm foliage and orchid flowers, the plant dies. If detected, it is necessary to begin treatment of the plant.
Insecticides will help fight pests: Fitoverm, Biotlin, Vermitek, Aktara, Sanmayt and others. The humidity around the plant is also regulated, and the leaves are washed once every 2 weeks with a soap solution.
To prevent and protect orchids from pests, it is necessary to ventilate the premises, to prevent drafts.
Orchid Dendrobium is characterized by a variety of species and the ability to propagate it at home. With proper care, it will be possible to grow a beautiful plant.