Rules for growing mushrooms at home
The mushroom season does not always bring a good harvest, and soil pollution and poor ecology in some regions make even delicious mushrooms inedible. Recently, growing mushrooms at home is gaining popularity. If you follow the basic rules of care, you will be able to grow mushrooms in the garden or at home in a short time.
Rules for growing mushrooms at home
To successfully grow mushrooms at home, you should decide on the planting location. Conditions and habitat should be as close to natural as possible.
Crop plants located nearby can significantly reduce the yield and quality of mushrooms. The neighborhood with mulberry (mulberry tree) will be unfavorable. The interaction of fungal spores with the soil causes its oxidation, which is harmful to the root system of the plant. It is better to arrange plantings near walnut trees or to plant spruce on the site. Mushroom planting is located at a distance of 50 cm from the tree trunk.
If there is no suitable place on the site, mushrooms can be planted on the north side of the outbuildings. In such conditions, it is easy to grow oyster mushrooms in the garden or in the garden, they adapt faster in all new places.
For growing mushrooms, a plot is prepared in the fall. The topsoil is removed. Indented beds are formed so that the mycelium can fully develop. The beds are ditches 40 cm wide and 30 cm deep, the distance between them is usually made at least 50 cm, the length is determined by the volume of harvested raw materials.
The bottom is filled with expanded clay or broken brick drainage. Green juicy grass is placed on top of the drainage layer, they are poured with slurry and covered with soddy soil. In this state, the ditches are left until spring.
To prepare slurry, mix 20 l of manure, 1 kg of wood ash and 10 l of water. The prepared solution is infused for 10 days, stirring completely (from top to bottom in the container where you made the workpiece) from time to time. The last 3 days insist without stirring.
Basic breeding techniques
Mushroom cultivation in the country can be carried out in several ways:
- contamination of the soil with spores;
- transplantation of wild mycelium;
- planting purchased mycelium.
It is better to plant mushrooms on the site in the interval from May to September. The preferred method of reproduction is mycelium. It is sold in the form of grains or in a mixture with a substrate. On the packages the scale of the area for sowing and the features of growing the variety are indicated, which allows you to quickly begin to breed basidiomycetes, even without special skills.
Mushroom seeds are in hats
The most suitable technique if it was planned to grow forest mushrooms. This method involves the preparation and mixing of planting material with your own hands. Overgrown specimens of the desired species should be found in the forest. Wormy mushrooms are also suitable. Disputes are in hats, in disputed bags.
In a container with river or rain water, add 2-3 tbsp. l sugar or sourdough for kvass. This will start the fermentation process. Mash the hats with your hands to a mushy state and immerse in liquid. Mix everything until smooth. The mixture is insisted day, stirring regularly.
Hardening hats are used 10 hours after collection. Before planting, the mixture is filtered through cheesecloth, then it is squeezed and the resulting solution with water is diluted in a ratio of 1:10. The concentrate is added to a pre-prepared area and mulched with compost. To quickly grow edible mushrooms in a summer cottage, you need to mix and stand the compost correctly:
- 30 kg of straw;
- 30 kg of horse manure;
- 1.2 kg of ammonium nitrate;
- 3 kg of gypsum;
- 50 g of superphosphate.
Straw is soaked in water for 2 days. Then stack the straw with manure alternately in 4 layers. Saltpetre is distributed on each layer of straw. After 6 days, mix the substrate and add ¼ of gypsum and water. After 5 days, the remainder of the gypsum, 1/3 of superphosphate is added. After 4 days, the superphosphate residue is added, watered and mixed thoroughly.
Compost mulch the soil immediately after planting and before the onset of cold weather. The second mulching involves increasing the compost layer to 10 cm.
Another way to grow forest mushrooms in the country is to transplant mycelium. Best of all, butterwigs, boletus, boletus and ringworm (stroparia wrinkled-ringed) take root. Mushroom glades are located next to pine trees on soils fertilized with lime.
The mushroom picker is carefully dug up in square or rectangular layers and transported to the destination. Each mycelium is wrapped in a separate plastic bag (in order not to mix up, it is advisable to sign each piece). In previously prepared beds, the raw materials are buried to a depth of 10 cm. With this method of reproduction, the first mushrooms will appear after 5 years, but then they can be collected every 3 months, starting in May.
A method that allows you to easily grow mushrooms at home and in the country. If you use mycelium mixed with a substrate, it is enough to remove the top layer of soil and cover it with a layer of raw materials. Then the substrate is watered with water (but not to the state of the swamp) and covered with fallen leaves mixed with humus. When buying ready-made substrates, carefully study the foreign trade activities of the TN containing information on the places from which the mycelium is imported.
Planting cultivated mushrooms on the site can be carried out using raw materials prepared by yourself. To obtain "seeds" you will need several ripe mushrooms, crushed into gruel and mixed with the substrate. From one mycelium grow 2-3 full-fledged mushrooms.
For beginners, a lot of all kinds of kits were created in the form of boxes and bags containing ready-made mixtures with mushroom mycelium. The disadvantage of a kit for a beginner is low productivity: 800-1000 g of products are obtained from one kit. But on the other hand, this may suit people who are going to grow mushrooms in a city apartment. And among other things, you will have already tested, properly prepared mushrooms on your hands, which give a guaranteed result.
Moisture is important for mushrooms.
Cultivating cultivated mushrooms in a garden requires a special approach. The first nuance is the temperature regime - in the range of 25-29 ℃. While maintaining the optimal regimen, the development of the dispute will take place in 2-3 weeks.
The determining factor in the successful development of mycelium is humidity . Watering the beds is permissible immediately after planting, and in the future it is necessary to maintain dampness in other ways. Watered compost is covered with straw and wet rags.
After 10-15 days, a thin silver coating will appear on the surface of the compost. This is a sure sign of mycelium coming out. At this point, the substrate is covered with wet loam or sand mixed with peat.
Ripening occurs in waves. A large number of mushrooms appear during the day, then growth stops and the next family goes outside after a week. The first young specimens appear on the surface of the soil after 1.5-12 months, depending on the variety you purchased.
The technology for growing edible mushrooms requires the right approach to harvesting in order to preserve the mycelium. Collected specimens with hats, starting at 2 cm in size. Holding the mushroom's hat, carefully twist it out of the soil.
Waste from the crop (the tips of the legs, skins) is not thrown away, but crushed and put into the pits formed after harvesting and covered with compost. It is important to collect the entire crop at once in order to prevent the development of diseases. The faster the bed is removed, the faster new mushrooms will appear.
Equipment of the place in the house
For growing mushrooms, basements are suitable. You can also build beds on the balcony or in the garage. The main thing is that the room is equipped with a temperature control system. This will require ventilation with a water spray system.
The room has blocks with containers for nutrient substrate. Blocks are built of metal, because wooden structures in conditions of high humidity quickly decay and become worthless. Oyster mushrooms and honey mushrooms are usually grown in bags with sawdust. To grow mushrooms on an industrial scale or in an apartment, sterility must be observed. Each box is located separately. If possible, it is better to equip the cellar separately for mixing the substrate and for preparing the mycelium.
For beginners, a method of growing artificial mushroom plantations in onion husks or sawdust is suitable. Prepare boxes with vents or bags. Mix sawdust or husk with a substrate containing mycelium and place in a container. Carefully cover the boxes on top with a film to create a greenhouse effect, and tighten the bags tightly and leave them for 10-14 days, periodically checking the soil moisture. A similar method makes it easy to grow edible mushrooms at home in a jar and keep them right in the kitchen.
For people involved in the cultivation of mushrooms on an industrial scale, a ready-made "growbox" is suitable - a special climate chamber. Inside the chamber contains hydroponics - a special supplement for forest mushrooms, which includes the whole range of nutrients necessary for the full development of mycelium.
Irina Selyutina (Biologist):
When growing mushrooms in a summer cottage it is important:
- The site is best located near old trees or rotten logs.
- The mushroom picker cannot be planted directly in the ground, it needs a nutrient substrate (straw, sawdust).
- Mycelium can be planted not only in the soil, but also on part of a log or stump. It is desirable that the tree was of the same breed as in the forest.
When growing in the basement, remember:
- The substrate must be treated with hot water or steam to prevent the development of parasite larvae or pathogens.
- Mushroom blocks must be loose and breathable, therefore they cannot be filled too tightly.
- The development of mycelium must be monitored constantly in order to be able to control quality.
You can try to build a special room for breeding mushrooms with your own hands right in the yard. The equipment does not take much time. A hydroponic box or several bags of sawdust mixed with turf soil are installed indoors.
The idea of growing mushrooms in a garden or summer cottage is interesting and profitable, because you can eat mushrooms at any time all year round. To start growing mushrooms from spores, it is better to use tips for outdoor care.