Rules for growing cucumbers on trellis in open ground
Growing cucumbers on a trellis in the open ground is a rather practical solution for creating favorable conditions for the cucumber culture in order to fully develop them. Special trellis structures make it possible to maintain cucumber bushes in an upright position and serve as a guarantee of good productivity.
Growing cucumbers on a trellis
Many summer residents know firsthand that when growing cucumber crops in the spread vegetable bushes touch the surface of the soil. Cucumber leaves are located directly on the ground, as a result of which the causative agents of multiple diseases, among which the main enemy of cucumber culture - powdery mildew, quickly fall from the soil to foliage and vegetables. A contributing factor for the rapid development of diseases is high humidity, which is created inside cucumber thickets.
The risk of disease with a simple, healthy cultivation of cucumber crops increases at times in the conditions of the rainy summer season.
Growing cucumber culture on trellises allows you to:
- provide ventilation of the plants and their uniform warming with sunshine with further care, which is the prevention of fungal infections and putrefactive damage to plants without the use of special chemicals,
- rational use of the sown area, which will certainly affect the amount of yield obtained in the fall,
- to create optimal lighting for the whole cucumber planting as a whole,
- to establish the necessary microclimate, which will not be affected by daily temperature changes,
- accelerate the ripening time of vegetables through the active use of the photosynthesis process,
- reduce the loss of cucumber by reducing the amount of spoilage of vegetables,
- extend the stage of fruiting of a vegetable crop,
- create comfortable conditions for caring for the bushes.
As summer residents say that they grow cucumbers on trellises, yields through this method can be increased at least twice.
The trellis design for growing cucumbers involves the use of support posts and a metal wire (wire) attached to them, a wooden lattice or a trellis net. For the construction of the trellis structure, the place on the plot is chosen so that the surface of the soil layer is flat, preferably on the south side, where in rare cases wind and drafts are observed.
Most often, to create a trellis support for cucumbers, gardeners take metal or wooden poles and reinforced concrete racks as a basis. The height of the posts is calculated so that the variety of cucumbers you have chosen has enough growth in height. Typically, the length is at least 2 m with a depth of 0.5 m in the ground. The posts are instilled at a distance of 3 to 4 meters from each other, pulling the horizontal wire in between the posts, to which a plastic mesh is attached.
Instead of wire, you can use a wooden bar. Its expediency is explained by the fact that, unlike a wire thread, it will not bend under the weight of cucumber vines.
The frame of wooden slats is also often used as the basis for trellis cultivation of cucumbers on the open ground. To make such a trellis, you need slats with cells of 15-20 cm. The rack method of growing cucumbers is the least time-consuming, since you can make the main garter of the cucumber shoots one-time, the branches subsequently independently stretch up the wooden slats, clinging with a mustache to the support.
For a wooden rack structure, 2.5-3 centimeter slats are hammered together in the form of a lattice square.
Landing on the trellis
When planting, maintain the distance between the bushes
It is recommended to plant cucumbers when growing on trellis on open ground with seeds or seedlings in one row (row), located in the center with a distance between rows of no more than 1.5 m and a gap between cucumber seedlings of no more than 15-20 cm. when planting highly branching cucumber varieties, the intermediate distance between the bushes is increased to 0.5-0.7 m.
Sowing on open ground begins when the soil warms up to 12-15 ° C. Depth of planting seeds should not exceed 5cm. Planted seeds and young sprouts initially take refuge to provide the necessary heat. Covering material is not removed until 5-6 leaves grow on seedlings.
Accelerating the process of ripening cucumbers on trellises in the open ground can be done by planting crops in the seedling method. Cucumber seedlings are planted in the ground with the presence of 2-3 developed leaves on a seedling.
Cucumbers are watered when grown on a trellis in open ground by irrigation. Vertically arranged cucumber bushes are irrigated in the evening, unlike those grown in a greenhouse, which should be watered in the morning. When irrigation procedures use watering cans with sprayers, trying to water under the root, without falling on the foliage. Water for irrigation of cucumbers on trellises is heated to 25 ° C, and the frequency and volume depend on the stage of the growing season and adheres to a certain scheme:
- until the first inflorescences appear, watering should be moderate, 3-6 liters per square meter of sown area, with a frequency of 5-7 days,
- at the stage of flowering, the formation of ovaries and when vegetables appear, watering becomes plentiful, 6-12 liters per 1 sq. m of cultivated area, with a frequency of every 2-3 days,
- in cold weather and when autumn approaches, the frequency of watering procedures is reduced so as not to provoke the appearance of rot on the root system.
When growing cucumbers on a trellis in open ground, fertilizer is applied at the same frequency as with conventional cultivation of a vegetable crop:
- cucumbers are initially fed when the flowering process has begun,
- secondary and subsequent feeding is carried out with an interval of 2 weeks.
The total number of fertilizing cucumbers is 5-6 for the entire horticultural season.
Garter and bush formation
When trellis growing cucumbers, garter technology and the formation of bushes on a support are of no small importance.
Correctly tie the cucumber lashes to the trellis support - do this using long bundles or cords to the upper bar. More often, synthetic twine is used as a suitable material. To do this, every 3-4 days, overgrown branches are wrapped around the garter in due order.
The generally accepted fastening methods are a sliding knot or bow, which, as the plants grow and at the end of the season, are easily untied.
From the process of the correct formation of the bushes depends on how far to the fruiting stage the cucumbers on the trellis in the open ground will form a single leaf mass and grow to the desired size. The process of pinching involves the removal of stepchildren, flowers and ovaries on the lower part of the stem. With further growth of the cucumber bush, only the lateral processes remain, pinching when they reach a certain length.
The stepson rules imply following the scheme in several stages:
- in the presence of at least 5 leaves, excluding cotyledons, all stepson, inflorescences and ovaries are removed,
- 6-9 leaves of the stepson are grown on time, and 1 ovary remains,
- at the growth stage of 10-15 leaves, only the first stepson is left with two leaves and all the ovaries, all other shoots are removed,
- on 16 or more leaves, 1 stepchild with three leaves and an ovary remain, the remaining shoots are removed.
When the main cucumber lash reaches the top of the trellis support, it is tied around the trellis and lowered down for further growth towards the surface of the earth. For 0.8-0.9 m to the soil, the top of the cucumber whip is truncated.