Rules for feeding tomatoes
Fertilizing tomatoes during the growing season is a necessary condition for obtaining good crop yields. Proper care will provide plants with rapid growth, obtaining large and tasty fruits.
Rules for feeding tomatoes
The result will depend on the quality of the preparations that gardeners use, the correct timing and methods of their use. Many useful tips on the use of fertilizers can be found in the books of G.A. Kizim. Including for the arrangement of the garden in the apartment and the kitchen garden on the balcony.
When feeding, it is necessary to pay attention not only to the need for elements of the triad of nitrogen-potassium-phosphorus, but also other substances. An important component for growing a crop is calcium, as well as a number of trace elements: sulfur, zinc, iron, manganese, aluminum, boron,
Nitrogen is necessary for vegetables to build green mass. Tomatam - also for the formation of a sufficient number of ovaries. Signs of nitrogen deficiency are falling of the lower leaves, as well as a situation where the fruits are poorly tied and grow.
Despite the importance of the element for growth and development, nitrogen overfeeding should not be allowed. At different stages, the consequences can be different: fatliquoring of plants (thickening of the stem and leaves, delayed fruiting), deterioration in taste, cracking, ugliness of the fruit.
Phosphorus is necessary for the formation of the root system, the ripening of fruits. Its lack is evidenced by:
- purple color of leaf veins;
- darkening of the plate;
- a reddish tint on the back.
If you do not make up for the lack of phosphorus in time, the leaves curl, a bronze tint of the fruits appears. Such signs are most often noticed in adverse weather, during the period of intensive root formation, fruit set.
When applying phosphorus-containing fertilizers, the structure of the root system of tomatoes must be taken into account. The central core root absorbs nutrients at a depth of 50 cm or more. Branched roots in the upper part feed from the surface layers, so you need to add the nutrient solution not only under the stem, but also in the near-stem circle with a diameter of about half a meter.
The element provides high yields, plant resistance to temperature extremes, improves immunity to various diseases.
Signs of potassium deficiency:
- yellowish or orange coloring of the sheet edge;
- old leaves dry and crumble;
- tomatoes ripen unevenly.
If you do not fertilize in a timely manner, irreversible changes will occur: the stems will stop growing, become stiff.
Types of fertilizers
How to fertilize tomatoes? Mineral and organic fertilizers will help to replenish the nutrient reserves in the soil.
There are many varieties of fertilizer
The composition is distinguished:
- nitrogen: ammonium nitrate, urea, urea, ammonium sulfate, ammonium sulfate;
- phosphoric: superphosphate;
- potash: potassium sulfate, potassium sulfate (chlorine salts of potassium are not recommended for use, because they increase the chlorine content in the soil);
- complex: ammofoska, nitroammofoska, nitrofoska, azofoska, calcium nitrate and others (contain the complex of elements necessary for tomatoes).
An important element for the development of tomatoes is calcium. If you do not add the necessary amount of calcium nitrate to the ground at the right time, the planted plants will not be able to absorb nitrogen well.
This knock is not common. It can be prepared at home from ammonium nitrate, water and slaked lime. When boiling the mixture, ammonia is released, therefore, safety precautions must be observed, and the resulting mother liquor is the calcium top dressing for tomatoes.
- Complex mineral fertilizers for root top dressing of tomatoes differ little from each other. They include substances of the nitrogen-potassium-phosphorus complex in various proportions, there is a difference in the methods of preparation, but they have approximately the same effect on the culture.
- Fertilizer for tomatoes Sudarushka in addition to the complex also contains the necessary trace elements, has an antifungal effect. They can fertilize tomatoes under the root and on the leaf.
- An effective means of increasing productivity, the formation of fruits with good taste is the drug Mag-bor. It replenishes the reserves of trace elements magnesium and boron.
- To eliminate the lack of magnesium, accelerate the ripening of fruits allows Teraflex. Tuki of this series are also used for growing plants at home on the windowsill.
- One of the most common drugs used to care for tomatoes is Bordeaux liquid. Copper sulfate treatment helps fight fungal diseases.
Traditionally, tomatoes are fed with cow, horse, and less often with pig manure, bird droppings, compost, peat. They are used in dry form or as a liquid top dressing (can be easily prepared at home).
This organic for tomatoes is recommended to be introduced in the fall when plowing. In order for them to start affecting plants, it takes time, in the spring it is better to combine mineral components with humate. Feeding with liquid mullein, chicken is carried out in the summer. To do this, dry substance is poured with water in a ratio of 1: 1 and left for fermentation. Fertilizing tomatoes with litter is more concentrated, so it should be diluted in 20-25 parts of water before use.
Humates are salts of potassium or sodium, which are part of humic acids, which form the basis of soil humus. The industry produces various combinations with mineral fertilizers (gum preparations, Gumat Super series). Diluted humate watered the ground and sprayed plants.
Fertilizers of a new type
Signor-tomato is an organo-mineral fertilizer that is used to feed tomatoes in greenhouse conditions and in open ground. It can be applied before planting and after during the entire growing season.
The drug has many advantages. The combination of nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus in the optimal proportion stimulate not only growth, but also the formation of ovaries, the ripening of high quality fruits. The presence of humic acids, beneficial bacteria improves the quality of the soil, the plant becomes more resistant to various diseases and better assimilates nutrients. This reduces the need for mineral fertilizers.
Stimulates and increases the resistance of tomatoes to diseases of the fat Red Giant. The processing of Ideal, a liquid fertilizer for foliar application, has a similar effect on tomatoes. It has an alkaline reaction, and therefore is best suited for acidic soils. Seed treatment gives early germination, pests are not terrible for seedlings. By adjusting doses and methods of application, plant development can be adjusted.
The processing of tomatoes by the Athlete during the transplantation of seedlings contributes to their rooting. The best result can be obtained by multiple spraying of plants. The first is carried out with the appearance of three sheets, the second and third - with an interval of a week.
Fertilizers increase disease resistance
Good results are given by spraying tomatoes with Epin, fertilizer Good power. These are new generation biostimulants that:
- accelerate seed germination, fruit ripening;
- stimulate rooting of seedlings, rejuvenation of old plants;
- increase resistance to diseases;
- reduce the amount of harmful substances in the fruit.
The norms for the phased use of drugs can be clarified in the tables given in the instructions.
A complex microfertilizer of a new type, containing mineral and organic components - Nanovit. More precisely, this is a series of drugs that are delivered on schedule throughout the summer season. Manufacturers celebrate its European quality and have experience of industrial use in different countries of the world.
When and how to fertilize
To get the result, it is important to know at what time a plant needs certain nutrients. There are different opinions: some believe that fertilizing for tomatoes is necessary every 7-10 days, others - that you need not to overfeed the bushes.
It is also important how to properly feed the tomatoes. There are two main ways of additional plant nutrition: root and foliar top dressing. Gardeners usually alternate fertilizing at the root and on the leaf.
The most common scheme for root feeding of tomatoes:
- the first feeding of tomatoes is carried out after transplanting seedlings after 2 weeks;
- the second - before flowering;
- the third - in the formation of the first ovaries;
- the fourth - during the period of active fruiting (not later than 2 weeks before harvesting).
How many times to feed depends on the condition of the soil and weather conditions (frequent rains, for example, will wash out nutrients from the soil). Their total number during the growing season is 8-10. In addition, fertilizers are applied during digging in the fall and before planting tomatoes in the spring.
Features of dressing in the greenhouse
The introduction of nutrients when growing crops in closed ground has its own characteristics. This is because the greenhouse retains high humidity and temperature, which means that the risk of developing pathogens increases.
The frequency of foliar top dressing is less. You need to fertilize greenhouse tomatoes in the early morning in cloudy weather, otherwise you can burn plants (glass or a film of a greenhouse can play the role of a magnifying glass). After - mandatory ventilation, so that the moisture on the leaf evaporates and the plants are dry by night.
How to fertilize
The gardener, taking care of the quality of the soil and the needs of the culture for nutrients, must be guided by the “do no harm” rule. The choice of fertilizer for tomatoes, the time and method of application depends on the initial state of the soil, growing conditions.
Experienced growers recommend refraining from common mistakes that can give the result, the opposite of expectations.
How not to fertilize tomatoes:
- planted in too fertile soil: adding a large amount of organic matter to the wells can lead to fatliquoring of plants and a decrease in yield;
- feed cow dung more than 2-3 times per season (this may affect the quantity and taste of harvested tomatoes);
- often use urea (this will harm the plants; it can be used for foliar feeding at the beginning of the growing season).
How to feed tomatoes so as not to harm their own health? Gardeners are looking for the answer to this question in the practice of organic farming, when only natural products are used.
Here are the best folk recipes for feeding tomatoes.
It is better to use yeast top dressing in warm weather.
Baker's yeast contains amino acids, trace elements necessary for plant development. The positive effect of the use of yeast is manifested:
- in good adaptation of seedlings after a dive;
- in increasing endurance with adverse factors (for example, poor lighting);
- in the growth of green mass, developed root system.
Since the activity of yeast fungi depends on temperature, the effectiveness of top dressing with yeast will be low when applied to cold soil in cool weather.
- For 1 cup of warm water, there is a 10-gram pack of dry yeast and 2 tbsp. l Sahara. All ingredients need to be mixed well, left for 2 hours, and then diluted in 10 liters of water.
- 10 g of warm water accounts for 100 g of live yeast. The mixture is left for a day, and diluted in 50 liters of water before watering.
- For watering without infusion, 200 g of live yeast is diluted in 5 l of water. Before watering, the volume of liquid is adjusted to 50 liters.
As an option to use yeast as a top dressing for tomatoes - cooking mash. It is prepared from the calculation: 100 g of yeast, 2-3 tablespoons of sugar in 3 liters of water. After a week, the mash can be used. The tool is very economical: 1 cup is diluted in 10 liters of water.
An important side effect of the use of yeast top dressing is the absorption of potassium and calcium during the life of yeast, therefore, it is recommended to add wood ash to the starter culture or directly under the root.
Sugar for feeding tomatoes is used to enhance the fermentation of yeast and as an independent fertilizer. Vegetable growers consider it an excellent stimulant for plants. Periodically it is recommended to carry out sweet watering of tomatoes. The solution is prepared at the rate of 100 g of sugar per 1 liter of water. The consumption of the composition per plant is 0.5-1 l, depending on the age of the bush.
Feeding with bread
Among vegetable growers engaged in organic farming, feeding tomatoes with bread is popular. Since ancient times, peasants used black bread (crusts, crackers) as fertilizer. It contains in its composition such elements important for the growth and development of tomatoes as phosphorus, nitrogen, potassium, manganese, zinc, iron, sodium. For 40% or more bread consists of carbohydrates, which are a favorable environment for fungi and bacteria. They transform nitrogen from air into compounds that are easily absorbed by plants.
Options for preparing organic fertilizer for bread tomatoes:
- Half a bucket of brown bread is filled in a bucket, poured with water, crushing them with a load, and left for fermentation for a week. Then the bread is squeezed, and the bucket is poured to the top.
- In a large bucket (15 l), 3-4 loaves of bread are soaked. After 2 days, the bread is squeezed, and the resulting solution is diluted with water in a ratio of 1: 8 or 1:10, after which it is used as fertilizer.
- Rusks are poured into a can of warm water and, tightly corked, left in a warm place for 2 weeks. After the starter culture is diluted with water 1: 1 and poured under the roots of tomato bushes.
Such bread dressing can be carried out every 10-12 days, especially if the soil is not very fertile. Norms of use - 1 cup of sourdough under the plant. As with yeast fertilizer, ash must be added to replenish calcium reserves in the soil.
Using Onion Husk
Onion peel stimulates plant growth
The natural source of vitamins and phytoncides is the onion peel. The carotene contained in it has antioxidant properties, destroys bacteria and fungi. Vitamins of groups B and PP contribute to the passage of chemical reactions, as a result of which substances are converted into forms that are easily absorbed by plants.
Thus, the use of onion husks allows you to:
- increase immunity to various diseases;
- form a developed root system;
- stimulate the development of the plant at any stage.
A preparation made from husk will help get rid of many pests: aphids, ticks, caterpillars.
To feed tomatoes with such fertilizer, you need to take 2 cups of dry onion husks and pour 2 liters of boiling water, leave for 2 days, then strain and dilute with water in a 1: 3 ratio. The prepared solution is recommended to be applied under the root.
To control pests, a preparation of a lower concentration is prepared: 1 glass of husk is poured into 10 liters of water and brought to a boil or poured with boiling water and insisted for 12 hours. Apply after cooling and filtering.
A cheap and environmentally friendly homemade fertilizer for tomatoes is herbal infusion. Its value lies in the successful combination of carbon and nitrogen. Unlike compost, which takes several months to mature, this preparation is prepared in a few days.
To always have a fresh infusion on hand, it is prepared in small portions of weeds and mowed grass. The presence of nettle, dandelion, celandine increases the nutritional properties of this yeast. It would be undesirable to use plants mowed during the flowering period.
There are many ways to make herbal tea for tomatoes. One of them is this:
- put the chopped green mass into a container (bucket or barrel) and condense, leave 20-25 cm to the edge of the container;
- fill with water (weight ratio of about 1: 1);
- add superphosphate dissolved in warm water (dosage - 50 g per 10 l of water);
- leave for fermentation for 10-12 days until a specific dung smell appears, reduce foaming (it is advisable to cover the container with a lid or wrap it with a film, mix the mixture periodically).
The finished infusion is diluted with water in a ratio of 1: 4 and watered tomatoes under the root. During flowering and fruiting, you can add wood ash or potassium sulfate.
The use of home remedies
To provide ambulance to plants in need of nitrogen, weakened tomatoes are fed with ammonia. During flowering, the source of trace elements can be potassium permanganate.
An alternative to fungicides is the processing of tomatoes with kefir, milk (a solution with the addition of iodine), and whey. In order for the tomatoes to turn red faster, they are sprayed with iodine solution during the filling period. Hydrogen peroxide is used to disinfect seeds and prevent root decay.
EM technology and tomato cultivation
In recent years, a system of natural farming has been very popular among gardeners, aimed at maximizing the use of internal soil resources.
Частью этой системы является использование ЭМ-технологии — применение эффективных микроорганизмов для повышения плодородия любых по составу почв.
Байкал ЭМ-1 — концентрат, который состоит из полезных микроорганизмов. Растворы, приготовленные на его основе, используют для приготовления питательного ЭМ-компоста, замачивания семян, полива рассады и взрослых растений. По наблюдениям огородников, применение этого препарата позволяет получить лучшие урожаи ранее обычных сроков созревания без использования химии.
Чтобы решить, чем удобрять помидоры на участке, нужно оценить все за и против. Готового рецепта нет. Только хозяин может принять решение, использовать для помидоров приобретенное комплексное удобрение или обойтись домашней органикой, например, компостом или птичьим пометом.
Наблюдая за растениями, огородник должен составить свой календарь внесения полезных веществ. Ориентиром будут общие правила и инструкции к выбранным препаратам.