Pruning pruning - how to carry out the procedure in the fall
August and September are busy months at the gardener: harvesting is in full swing, the preparation of plants for winter is beginning. For trees, the formation of the crown remains very important during this period, since health and the size of the crop for the next year depend on this. Cutting plums in autumn is carried out according to a certain scheme aimed at increasing the volume of fruiting.
Pruning pruning - how to carry out the procedure in the fall
Need to trim
All varieties of plums are characterized by rapid thickening of the crown. They have good regeneration, allowing for a short time to grow a lot of side branches. They pull the flow of nutrients necessary for sowing the crop.
Several crops per year are planned for this crop. Spring and autumn are basic.
Proper cutting of the shoots, maintaining the desired density of the crown guarantees a large number of fruits and their ripening.
There are certain schemes for pruning young trees and rejuvenating old ones. It’s easy even for beginners.
Both autumn and spring trimming are important for a tree.
In the spring, it is of a sanitary nature: broken, damaged branches are removed.
In autumn - it is aimed at thinning and removing young branches, adjusting the height and width of the crown. It is during this period that those small branches that have grown during the summer are clearly visible and will actively interfere with the penetration of sunlight into flowers and fruits in the next season.
Another important argument in favor of autumn pruning is the resting time of the tree: it will easily endure all manipulations, the damage will be prolonged, the places of cuts will heal under a garden var.
In the cool of September, bacteria no longer spread and fungal infections do not survive.
In different regions of the country, the timing of trimming will vary depending on climatic conditions.
- In central Russia - from September to mid-October.
- In the southern regions, winter is 1-2 weeks late and the sap flow stops later, so the procedure is left for the last days of September.
- In Siberia and the Urals at this time it is already very cold and let the snow fall not soon, but the frost is not going to recede. In these regions, all work is completed at the beginning of the first autumn month.
It is worth considering: it is convenient to navigate by the time of leaf fall and carry out pruning after it.
For a full restoration of the tree it will take 1-2 months. Timely completed manipulations will give a chance to leave the plum for wintering, gaining strength and without a heavy load of extra branches.
The principle of crown formation is different from other trees, although the requirements remain common.
Delete branches immediately:
- growing downward, inward, intersecting;
- thickening the crown;
- too long;
- broken, damaged by disease or pests.
After that, a more thoughtful inspection of the plum begins. Since there is a harsh winter ahead with snowfalls and winds that can break a branch or damage a tree, deputy branches are sure to leave. If they are not needed, then they are removed in the spring.
The tool must be sanitized before trimming.
To trim, you need to prepare:
- garden knife
- tool disinfectant;
- garden var.
The formation of young plums
Not only its appearance, but also its further development, productivity, fruiting period depends on how correctly pruning was done at the beginning of a tree’s life.
At the first cutting of the seedling, the top is shortened by 1/3, the side branches - by 2/3.
In the following years, long branches are removed by 1/3, they also control the height. The largest kidney is selected and the main trunk is cut off above it. If an shoot is formed that is parallel to the skeletal branch, it is completely removed.
0.5 m from the ground on the trunk should not be lateral branches.
The optimal height of the tree is 2.5 m. With such a plum it is convenient to harvest, process it from pests, the root system provides the plant with nutrients, forming large, juicy fruits.
Anti-aging pruning of old trees
The fruiting period of plum is 10-15 years. It can be extended by anti-aging pruning. It occurs in the fall, so that the plant recovers by winter.
Important: the procedure is designed for 2-3 years, if you remove all unnecessary branches at once, the tree will get stress and in most cases will die.
- First, sick and weakened processes growing inside the crown are cut out.
- Then comes the turn of the young shoots.
- At the end, branches whose age does not exceed 3-4 years are removed.
After 5 years, the procedure is repeated.
Features of pruning of columnar varieties
These varieties require special care. If they are not trimmed, for 2-3 years they begin to resemble the shape of a poplar, and you can forget about the crop.
The basis is the trunk, from which half-meter lateral branches branch out - they also grow in too much, therefore they need corrective pruning.
Variety characteristics include early maturity, high palatability.
Both yellow and blue plums are trimmed the same way: you only need to maintain the desired height and shorten the side shoots to 20 cm.
Colon-shaped plants are conveniently planted in small areas, since 3 square meters. m you can safely place 3-4 trees.
To support the tree after the procedure, it should be provided with good care. It consists in abundant watering with the addition of complex fertilizer, cleaning the places of cuts and treating them with garden varieties, loosening and mulching the trunk circle with crushed bark, peat, wood shavings.
Feeding is also possible with organics, wood ash containing potassium and phosphorus is especially effective. These elements accelerate regeneration and increase frost resistance. Ash is dissolved in water at the rate of 1 tbsp per bucket or sprinkled on top of the trunk circle.
Autumn pruning of the plum extends the fruiting period, improves the breathability of the crown, gives the tree a chance to survive the winter without frostbite and broken branches. In the spring, it remains only to remove the damaged shoots and look forward to a plentiful harvest.