Production of trellis for grapes
The grape culture is distinguished by the subtlety and fragility of the vines with their strong growth. Without organized support, a plant cannot develop, grow and produce crops. Grape trellis will fix all these problems. The main thing is to take into account some of the subtleties of manufacturing.
Production of trellis for grapes
Why are grapes tied to trellises
Grapes are not able to exist without support. It is important for the culture to receive sunlight and to ventilate well, but with the enormous size of the lignified vine and shoots this will not work. The only way out is to tie the plant to a trellis or pergola.
Tapestries for the vineyard are needed not only for this: in an upright position, the crop receives more sunlight, is more actively synthesized and gives a larger crop.
The size of the trellis for grapes is smaller than arched structures. The device is limited to installing only 2-4 columns at a small distance from each other. And if there is a need to plant 3-4 bushes at the dacha, building a trellis for grapes will be the best option possible.
There are types of designs that carry only a decorative function.
Types of Trellis
Growing grapes on the site, it is impossible to do without reliable support. This is an integral part of the proper care of the planted crop. An alternative to conventional grape trellises are natural, natural vertical supports. Winegrowers in Georgia and Western European countries often tied the vine to the crown and trunk of a tree. The inconvenience and space saving forced people to tie the aerial parts of plants to a compact trellis for grapes.
Installation of trellis for grapes or arched structures is carried out before planting bushes or in the first year of their habitation on the site. The most popular types of trellis for grapes are:
- Single-plane trellis. They are several vertical posts installed in 1 row connected by horizontal supports. Connected structural elements form a single vertical plane. There is also a single-plane version with two parallel lines of horizontal supports and a scheme with a visor.
- Two-plane trellis for grapes. An option that requires more space on the site than with the construction of a single-plane. This is a pair of single-plane options installed at a short distance from each other. The two-plane version of the structures is either parallel to each other, or inclined, v-shaped.
- Decorative designs. Perform decorative functions for home gardens. They plant girlish grapes, which creates a hedge that gives a shadow under the scorching sun. It can be wooden arbors, metal forged arches and Italian-style cell pergolas.
The tent model of the structure is also very popular, but it is not necessary to erect it on the home site: it requires huge space on the site and is used only for industrial purposes.
What type of trellis to erect
The number of bushes affects the choice of trellis
Considering the number of bushes planted (or ready for planting), the landscape features of the site, the varietal characteristics of the crop and other factors, the choice will be made between the types of grape trellis before the grower.
The first thing with which it is important to decide which is more important: functionality or decorativeness. If the goal is viticulture, use a 1 or 2-plane model, which will serve as the main development of the planted crop and create convenience in caring for plants. Take into account the size of the vineyards, available materials and experience in the construction of such structures. If there is no experience, they use the services of specialists who, for a certain amount, will make their own hands a reliable support for the planted crop.
If grape trellises are made with your own hands, in the future it is easier to correct some errors in work, repair or increase them. It is also important that, by collecting trellis for grapes by your own efforts, it will turn out to save most of the money.
Suitable models for installation on the site:
- Single plane model. Suitable for a small vineyard in temperate and northern climates (noted the convenience of shelter for the winter). Also this model creates convenience in leaving. With it it is easy to carry out pruning, pinching, etc. The only drawback is the difficulty of use for tall plants.
- Two-plane. It is used for a large number of bushes, even a standard form. Stimulates plantings to increase productivity. The disadvantage is not suitable for regions with insufficient insolation (vines and shoots of plants will obscure each other).
- Decorative views. They are used for decorative needs, as well as for the convenience of a person (organization of recreation places). Disadvantages: the ability to plant only vigorous climbing varieties, difficulties in sheltering vines for the winter.
The main thing is to choose the necessary materials and assemble the trellis for grapes with your own hands according to the drawings and instructions.
Having decided on the type of design, they select the necessary materials. The most stable and durable metal supports will be, interconnected by reinforcement, cable or wire. A simpler option is a wooden pergola, but its durability is at times inferior to a metal trellis.
Plastic pipes are also suitable for erecting arches. This material does not lose its properties under any weather conditions. But, there is one drawback: PVC pipes bend, it is difficult to use them for vertical supports. The formation of reliability and stability of such elements will be given by metal rods (fittings) placed in the cavity of this pipe.
Take into account the availability of tools, as well as the ability to use them. The metal product will have to be welded, so a manual arc welding machine will be required. Do not do without a grinder. Plastic pipes are soldered with a special plumbing soldering iron. The wooden model is the simplest. To build it, you need a standard set of tools: a hammer, screws, drill, saw, etc.
Fabrication of construction
Making trellis trellis with your own hands without a drawing is difficult. The first thing to take care of is to get a sketch of the future product with all the necessary dimensions. Their varieties themselves have both common moments of erection and individual differences.
The design should be easy to assemble
The next step is the location of the structure on the site. Take into account the dimensions of the product, as well as the convenience of the location of the object. Whatever the product, wooden, plastic or metal, it is important that it is convenient to assemble it. Take into account the possibility of connecting a power tool and organizing a place of work by the grower himself. The most important are the features of the grape content, which are also taken into account during the construction of interconnected vertical supports:
- The chosen place should not be shaded;
- groundwater should not leak near plants;
- the culture should be illuminated by the sun most of the daylight hours;
- The absence of drafts and the possibility of an easy and convenient shelter of bushes for the winter are welcome.
In order for the plant to receive the maximum amount of solar energy, the posts are installed so that the vertical plane formed between them delimits the south and the north. So a beautiful tall vine will be lit from sunrise to sunset.
Single plane option
The construction of a single-plane structure is the simplest. Minimum number of materials:
- 4 pillars;
- wire rope or coil;
- concrete mix.
Pipes or a profile of metal 2.5-3 m long are suitable as pillars. They are dug and concreted. The single-plane structure has a height of 2-2.5 m, the total length of the formed plane is 12 m.
A single-plane system of vertical and horizontal supports begins with the preparation of the foundation. The holes are dug at a distance of 3 m from each other. Pillars are installed in them to a depth of 0.5-0.6 m, fixing the bottom with pieces of brick (for stability during concreting). Then a solution is prepared, with which the columns are concreted. The following fabrication steps:
- Wait until the concrete dries. It takes up to 3 days.
- The upper ends are connected by jumpers. The most commonly used reinforcement or metal profile.
- In the posts, drill holes where a cable or wire will be attached. The first hole is made at a height of 40 cm from ground level, the rest - at a height of 40-45 cm from each other.
After the work is completed, all metal is coated with corrosion protection agents. If you create reliable protection against damage, the design will serve the owner of the vineyard for more than 20 years.
The most common and simple to manufacture two-plane version of the product, forming 2 parallel planes. It will be possible to make such a model without a welding machine. You only have to prepare the columns (they will need 2 times more than in the manufacture of a single-plane product), wire and concrete mix.
The first thing they do is mark out the area for the installation of a two-plane trellis. A rectangle with sides of 12 m and 0.75 m is drawn at the selected location. Then dig holes for the installation of supports. Dig them on the large sides of the rectangle, parallel to each other with a distance of 3 m. The result is 4 pairs of holes with a depth of 50-60 cm.
- Vertical supports are installed and concreted.
- Wait until the concrete is pulled together.
- Drill through holes. The first - from below, at a distance of 40 cm from the ground. Subsequent - at a distance of 45-50 cm from each other.
- A wire or cable is pulled, to which the garter of the plant is later produced.
Manufacturing is carried out according to the same rules as with supports of the same plane. If it is difficult to place planes in section 2, they make a V-shaped or Y-shaped variant. It is more difficult to assemble such products. After manufacturing, the vine is tied to the structure to adjust growth.
Decorative view of the structure
There are a large number of decorative supports for climbing wild grapes. The most popular are gazebos and hedges. The first is more difficult, because it requires a large amount of materials and time to build a gazebo. The second does not give the desired shadow in the summer heat, but only performs a decorative function or closes the delimitation of space with neighbors.
A hedge is built of wooden beams and battens. They are also dug into the ground to a depth of 50 cm. Concrete or not, the owner determines. If there is a need to transfer the structure in the future, this is not worth it.
When the pillars are dug, the top of the beam is sewn together, form a frame, the basis for further work. The beam is knocked down with nails or twisted with screws. It remains only to sheathe the frame on one side with wooden slats diagonally in two opposite directions. The main thing is that the resulting windows should have a diamond shape and sides of 10-12 cm.
Wood is a material less durable than metal, so you will have to take care of protecting it from moisture, as well as from the harmful activities of pests. It is important to treat the wood with a 2% solution of copper sulfate and paint it with linseed oil.
The resulting hedge will allow the girl's grapes to grow, braiding the created wooden net (he does not need a garter).
Creating trellises has a large number of advantages. The planted culture develops better, receives the right amount of light, which contributes to active fruiting. With a reliable support, it is easier to shape the vines, water the plant and harvest. It’s easy for the tapestry to do with his own hands. The main thing is to select the necessary materials and build a reliable structure according to the instructions.