Popular Russula Mushroom
Russula mushroom is often found in our forests. It is harvested all summer, but the peak of productivity falls at the beginning of autumn. There are about 270 species of russula, most of them are edible. Only a few should not be eaten due to bitterness or toxicity. By taste, the mushroom belongs to category III, has useful properties.
Popular Russula Mushroom
General description of the fungus
Russula - tubular or lamellar fungus, Russulus order belongs to the family, Russula family, Russula genus. It grows in forests with deciduous trees or mixed coniferous-deciduous flora. Often it is found at the bottom of ravines, edges, clearings, next to other fungi. It is capable of developing only in the forest ecosystem, it is not amenable to artificial cultivation. But some species are found even in the garden, if it is broken next to the forest.
The distribution area covers almost the entire northern hemisphere. Mushrooms are found in Central, Western and Eastern Europe, the European part of Russia, the Caucasus, Siberia, Crimea, North America.
General description of Russula mushroom:
- The hat. In young specimens, it is spherical or resembles a bell. Then it opens and turns into a flat one. Over time, a recess appears in the center, the edges rise upward or slightly bent. The cap is covered with a thin skin, which is relatively easy to remove, fits tightly on the pulp only in the center. Mushrooms are multi-colored, the color depends on the variety.
- Records. Located on the bottom of the cap and tightly fused with it. Mostly white (less often - a shade of ocher), with recesses and pointed edges, radially diverge from the center to the edges, long and brittle.
- Leg. It has the shape of a cylinder, the lower part is even, slightly narrowed, much less often - thickened. Inside, it is first filled, plump, in old fungi it is hollow. There are species in which the leg is always hollow.
- Pulp. It breaks easily, brittle, it is dense solid or spongy. It is painted in white or other light colors. When damaged, it turns pink only in some inedible species.
- Disputes. Small, white or yellow.
Different types differ in shade, shape, but the general characteristic is similar. All of them are famous and often found.
The mushroom has useful properties. It is able to lower blood lipids. Mycelium hoods have an anti-cancer effect. Fresh mushroom extracts are drunk as an antiparasitic and diuretic.
There are several dozen edible russules. Not all of them grow in Russia, some are rare. Most of the tops are painted in gray-green, yellow or blue tones.
Russula food - one of the most delicious varieties. It grows with a semicircular apex, which then aligns, an indentation appears in the center. The color is brown with different shades: gray, lilac, beige, green, and there are also white mushrooms. The peel is half removed. Frequent light plates, in which club-shaped or ovoid spores mature, are clearly visible under the hat.
Leg - smooth cylinder, without thickenings. The lower part is yellow-brown or the same as the hat. The middle is firm, crunchy, with a slight nutty flavor.
Harvest begins in mid-summer and ends in September. Mushrooms are found in the forest with coniferous or deciduous trees. A related gray species often grows nearby.
The browning Russula has a large cap with a diameter of up to 10 cm. From a convex she gradually turns into a flat and funnel-shaped. The skin is brown, purple spots are visible. When the yard is dry, it is dull, in the rain it becomes velvety or glossy, it is easy to clean. The plates are spliced with a leg.
The leg resembles a kubar or a mace, has a touch of red carmine. It becomes brown on a scrap, hence the name of the mushroom. The middle is plump, acquires a yellowish tone after an incision. After drying, a pronounced smell of shrimp is felt. The mushroom picker is in symbiosis with pines and Christmas trees.
Russula Swamp very tasty
Russula marsh - one of the most delicious varieties. Unlike other edible varieties, it has a red shade of the hat, which turns orange with old bodies. The top is fleshy and convex. The plates are frequent, are branched, grow to the pedicle. They are brown or creamy yellow.
The foot is about 10 cm, medium thickness, resembles a spindle or mace. Inside it is hollow, painted pink on top. Young Russula mushrooms have a dense center, which eventually becomes loose. The time of intense offering comes at the end of summer and the first weeks of autumn. The species grows in deciduous and mixed forests. Mycelium grows together with the root system of oak, spruce, pine, birch.
The Russula fork has a funnel-shaped hat, 5-12 cm in size. It is painted in different shades of brown, sometimes it is gray, yellow or greenish, with an olive speck in the middle. The plates grow densely and fall down, have a cream, green-yellow, with small brown spots shade. The skin is dry on top, removed only at the edges.
Leg tapers down, strong. After rains, yellow spots form on it. The middle is dense, crunches, slightly turns yellow on the scrap. Grows near deciduous trees, ripens closer to autumn, mushrooms gather in small groups.
Russula brown-purple has a fleshy hat with wavy edges, funnel-shaped. The color is purple with a brown tint, sometimes burgundy. The peel in the center is sticky, at the edges it becomes dry, with a matte sheen. The plates branch and grow to the stem. At first they are milky white, as the spores mature, they darken.
The leg has a thickening in the center, the base is narrow, with a yellowish tinge. The middle is loose, it breaks easily. Mycelium comes into symbiosis with birches and Christmas trees. Harvest is advised at the beginning of autumn: then the mushroom grows in groups.
The azure, or blue edible, russula has a color resembling amethyst. Sometimes visible olive, purple shades. She has a thick and thick hat, the skin is easily removable, covered with a spider-like gray plaque on top. The plates are thick, branching at the base.
Russula leg thickened, narrowed at the top, white, the structure changes from dense to spongy. In young fungi, it is covered with a velvet edge. The middle breaks easily, sweetish, without aroma. This species is found under the Christmas trees in August and September.
Russula Russula is white, or Crimean, has a middle apex of off-white color. In the middle it is concave, the edges are slightly wavy or straight. The lower plates are small and frequent, have a greenish tint. The leg is short and thickened, the middle is dense. The russules of this variety resemble milk mushrooms, but after cutting, milk juice does not appear. It tastes like mushroom with bitterness. The species grows among mixed trees; it is harvested until early October.
Russula maiden has a thin hat, flat or with a small dent in the center, edges with grooves. From above, the color of the fungus is brick or brown-purple, and fades over time. The plates grow densely, at first they are white, eventually become beige, branch near the legs and spliced with it. The skin is well removed, in the rain it becomes dirty.
The leg has the shape of a spindle or cylinder, thick, at the cut will acquire a dirty yellow color. The middle of the legs is spongy or dense. The pulp is brittle, turns yellow when damaged. This Russula tastes sweetish, has no aroma. Grows under Christmas trees, pines, beeches, oak trees, fir.
The underload is black, or a blackening variety, belongs to the conditionally edible group. The pulp has a light bitterness, but not poisonous. The hat from convex turns to flat, with a central indentation. The color is brown, then almost black, in the middle more intense. Aging mushrooms have cracks on the surface. The peel is sticky at high humidity, garbage, needles, and fallen leaves gather on it.
The hymenophore is pink-brown, sometimes black. Thickened and rare plates. The leg is elongated and cylindrical, first white, then brown. At the cut, the flesh turns pink. The species grows in the forests of Western Siberia, Karelia, and is also in Western Europe.
Greenish or scaly
Russula are universal in use
Greenish or scaly at the beginning of life has a semicircular apex, then catchings appear in the center, the edges turn out. Color is green or gray-green. The skin on the periphery is cracking, has small scales on top, and is easily cleaned. The plates are rare, in young specimens white, in old ones - fawn.
The leg is fleshy and plump, in the shape of a cylinder. The pulp has an original nutty flavor. It is considered one of the most delicious, suitable for frying, stewing, pickling. Autumn variety appears in September, grows in deciduous forest, prefers acidic soil.
Smelly or squirrel
Smelly, valuy, pig, or oleaginum, is considered a conditionally edible fungus, has a bitterness. The hat is first semicircular, then straightens. The cap color happens with violet, purple, brown, olive shades. The skin is covered with mucus, rough. The plates are dirty white, they produce dark juice when damaged.
The leg is thickened, dense, with a reddish tinge, which becomes gray in old mushrooms. The middle is fleshy, becomes brown in the section. The name of the species received due to an interesting smell. Someone compares it to a herring, to someone the aroma resembles almonds or oatmeal. So that the sows are not bitter, they are pre-soaked, then boiled in several waters. They are suitable for pickling and pickling.
A rare golden variety is found in deciduous forests. The semicircular hat gradually turns into a flat one with a slight indentation in the center. Color in red-yellow, orange and brick tones, reminiscent of gold. Plates are rare, with branches, ocher colors.
The leg is dense, voids appear in old mushrooms. The surface is rough, scaly. The hue is white, gradually turns brown. The middle is strong at first, but softens with age. There is no smell, the taste is soft, sweetish.
Almond or laurel cherry
The almond or laurel cherry has a convex hat, which is concave in youth. Color first resembles yellow ocher, then becomes brown. The plates are frequent, with sharp edges; in old age they become rusty.
Leg is cylindrical, brown, fleshy below. This russula tastes a little burning, has a pronounced almond flavor, which is why it is called almond. The species grows in deciduous or mixed forests, the mycelium forms a symbiosis with oak and beech.
There are practically no really poisonous mushrooms in the genus Syroezhkovye. Some species accumulate a small amount of toxins that can cause indigestion, mucosal irritation, or acute gastritis. But fatal poisoning by these mushrooms is not fixed.
Inedible varieties have a bitter, sometimes burning taste, and therefore are not suitable for collection and cooking. Most hats are bright red; on the cut, the flesh acquires a pink hue. But there are exceptions.
The russula is brittle, small in size, its hat is about 6 cm in diameter, has a flat shape with a slight indentation. Color lilac-purple with impurities of red, brown green and gray. The skin is mucous, easy to clean. Plates are rare, free, with notches along the edges.
Leg in the form of a mace or cylinder, first white in color, then turns yellow. The middle is dense, with age it becomes loose. The pulp is fragile, its color is white or yellowish. The aroma is sweet, the taste is bitter, then a mushroom and is considered inedible.
The mushroom has a bitter taste
Russula pink is considered conditionally edible. In appearance it resembles a distant cousin - an edible russula-like hygrophor. She has a bitter taste, but it disappears after soaking and long cooking. The hat is semicircular, without dents. Color from dark red to pale pink. The skin is dry, mucus appears only in wet weather. The plates fit tightly to each other, have a pink tint.
The leg is solid, has the shape of a cylinder. The middle is dense, but crumbles easily. These mushrooms are found in coniferous plantings. To get rid of an unpleasant taste, russula is soaked in water for about 5 hours. Then it is necessary to boil it for 1.5-2 hours, drain water 1-2 times.
Russula red, or blood red, is named so because of the bright color of the hat. It is thickened, with poorly removable skin. Sometimes it will acquire lilac, purple hues, fade in old age. The plates are frequent, branch, pass to the pedicle, first whitish, then acquire a creamy tint.
Leg in the form of a cylinder, with a pink or reddish color, yellow in the lower part. Inside is hollow. The middle is dense, pink under the skin itself. It tastes bitter and pungent, has a fruity aroma. If such russula is raw, it is easy to get a serious stomach upset.
Russula mayra, or honey, grows in many European countries, found in beech forests. The hat is not at first blood red, then turns pink. The shape is spherical, then it becomes convex, with a slight depression in the center. The plates are frequent, whitish in young mushrooms and cream in old ones.
The leg is cylindrical with a slight pink tint, brownish yellow at the base. The middle is dense, reddish on a crowbar, has a honey-fruity smell. The russula of this species tastes caustic, bitter and burning. It is considered poisonous, when raw, causes an upset stomach.
Russula Kele has a purple-violet, lilac or purple hat, sometimes greenish around the edges. First, it grows in a semicircle, then it becomes flat, and after the spores are isolated, the edges bend up. The plates are white, with age they become dirty gray or cream, grow widely and grow to the stem. The skin is removed poorly, only along the edge.
Leg in the shape of a cylinder, painted in intense pink and purple. The top is smooth, with a slight edge, the inside is dense. The pulp is dry and brittle, purple under the skin, yellow on the scrap. The aroma is weak, with light fruity notes. The taste is bitter and pungent. The mushroom is non-toxic, but, once in the dishes, spoils all the mushrooms.
Pyrex Russula is found in forests of all types. It does not have a red hat, in its youth it is semicircular, then it becomes flat. White plates, yellow in old age. The peel is well off. The leg has a faint pink hue, a cylindrical shape. The taste is bitter and burning.
The species is considered slightly poisonous. The mushroom contains small doses of muscarine. There have been no fatal cases after consuming this species, but it can cause serious stomach problems.
The sharp-edged Sardonyx russula looks attractive, has a purple-red or red-brown hat, sometimes with a green or yellow-green hue. The form is flat with a slight indentation, convex in young specimens. The plates are frequent, grow to the stem and descend a little on it. The shade of the plates is bright yellow or lemon.
The leg is fusiform, sometimes cylindrical, with a spongy structure. The color of the legs is lilac or purple-pink. The middle is hard, with a yellowish tinge, has a weak fruity aroma, pungent taste, and when raw it causes slight poisoning.
A species of fungus mushroom has an ocher-colored hat, sometimes yellow-brown, cream or gray-brown. First, the shape of the hat is semicircular, then it becomes flat, a bulge appears in the center. Old mushrooms are funnel-shaped. The edge is wavy, with notches. White plates, darken with age.
The leg is dense, solid, then becomes hollow, the color changes from white to cream yellow. The smell is pronounced mushroom, the taste is pungent. It occurs in mixed and deciduous plantings, matures in late August and September.
Gall Russula is inedible
A variety called bile has a flat hat, painted in a yellow-straw color. Edges with insignificant ribbing, the skin is sticky on top, it is cleaned only along the edge. The structure of the plates is branching, they are often located, have a light ocher color with yellowish edges.
The leg in the form of a spindle or club, hollow, a shade of light ocher, wrinkles in old age. The middle is white, has a smell of geranium. The taste is burning, because the representative of this family is inedible.
How to collect russula
Russula is an edible fragile mushroom; it easily breaks. You need to collect it in a basket, do not put too much on each other. You need to look for mushrooms under the tree, young specimens are hidden in the litter, they are neatly scooped up so as not to damage the hats. The leg is cut with a sharp knife. Be sure to look at the base, so as not to confuse with poisonous mushrooms. Before putting the find in the basket, it is checked for the presence of worms. If there are a lot of them, it is better to throw away the mushroom: it will infect the rest.
How to distinguish from a pale toadstool
The most poisonous mushroom in our forests is the pale grebe. She looks like a russula.
Описание и отличительные черты поганки:
- Молодой гриб имеет яйцевидную форму, у старого шляпка плоская, без вмятин.
- Окрас зеленоватый, бледно-желтый, желтый, желто-зеленый.
- Ножка 3-5 см, окрашена, как шляпка, только светлее, у старых экземпляров пустотелая.
- В нижней части есть характерный яйцевидный мешочек.
- Под шляпкой на ножке видно плотное кольцо.
- Мякоть не имеет запаха, на срезе никогда не видно, чтобы она посинела или пожелтела.
Вот несколько особенностей, на которые следует обращать внимание при дифференциации 2 видов:
- У съедобного гриба никогда нет кольца на ножке
- Ножка всегда толще, чем у бледной поганки и по отношению к шляпке, у большинства съедобных видов она белая или слегка желтоватая, бывает розовой при красном цвете шляпки.
- В нижней части никогда нет утолщения.
- Черви бледную поганку не едят — она всегда целая.
Ядовитыми являются не только плодовые тела поганки, но и споры. Если под деревом растет сыроежка и поганка, собирать съедобный гриб нельзя. На него попадают споры ядовитого, и он становится опасным. Также избегают подбирать ягоды, которые растут рядом с бледной поганкой.
Грибы сыроежки известные, вкусные и полезные. Они широко распространены в лесах. Готовить этот вид просто: отваривают 10-15 мин., затем тушат, жарят, маринуют или солят. Иногда сыроежки сушат, но они не имеет характерного запаха, потому уступают по качеству другим грибам. Главное при сборе — выучить основные признаки вида и не спутать его с ядовитыми собратьями.