Pigs, like all representatives of the animal world, are susceptible to a mass of diseases. One of the most dangerous diseases is erysipelas in pigs. Animals at the age of 3-12 months are at risk.
Pig erysipelas occurs due to the bacteria Erysipelotrix insidion, which is dangerous not only for animals, but also for people, which should be remembered by everyone who grows piglets. The causative agent of swine erysipelas does not give in to thermal influence, therefore, meat of infected individuals cannot be eaten. Many farmers compare pig faces with aujeszky disease.
Every pig breeder should know what symptoms and treatment the animal should take when a disease is detected. First of all, you need to find out what looks like erysipelas in young pigs, having studied the photo or video.
Causes of the disease
Erysipelas is an infectious disease that can be transmitted from other carriers. In addition to pigs, birds, rodents, and insects carry the bacterium. The disease is also transmitted through food, manure, care items previously used for a sick animal.
The bacterium lives in the soil, is activated in the warm season, therefore, the disease is seasonal.
The first symptoms manifest themselves in the form of a significant increase in temperature (up to 42 ° C), problems with movement appear (infection affects the hind legs of the animal). Among the less common symptoms, there is a decrease in activity, problems with stools, refusal to eat food, conjunctivitis. Another of the most striking manifestations of the disease is the appearance of erythema on the skin.
As soon as red spots began to form on the skin of the pig, it must be transferred to a separate room, away from relatives. Similar skin defects pass even after a full course of treatment and recovery of the animal. Erysipelas sometimes becomes chronic, gradually causing severe depletion of the pig's body. Endocarditis also appears, the skin dies.
At the first suspicion of an ailment, you should contact your veterinarian. The specialist will conduct a series of tests, examine the clinical picture of the disease of swine erysipelas, and make a final diagnosis.
Forms of the disease
The disease manifests itself in several forms.
Active form of the disease
It is very rare in pigs, most often piglets are subject to it, whose age is from 7 to 10 months. Basically, the fulminant stage of erysipelas begins due to improper maintenance: growing a large number of individuals in a small room.
Symptoms of active erysipelas in pigs:
- increase in body temperature;
- lack of appetite;
- heart failure.
With this course of the disease, a fatal outcome occurs within 2-4 hours after infection
Acute form of the disease
The acute form of swine erysipelas manifests itself with the following symptoms:
- increase in body temperature to 43 ° C;
- lack of appetite;
In addition, a sick pig may have gastrointestinal problems, diarrhea, and constipation. Also, the acute form of the infection causes the appearance of conjunctivitis, the pig cannot stand on its feet, bury itself in the litter, its skin takes a bluish tint, red-burgundy or pink spots appear on it. If you do not start treatment, the pig dies after 2-4 days.
Subacute form of the disease
- body temperature 41 ° C;
- the appearance of rashes or spots on the skin;
- decreased appetite;
- vision and stool problems.
If the erysipelas in pigs is confirmed, after infection, after a few days, the spots begin to increase, resembling squares of 1-4 cm in size, they will darken, acquiring a purple color.
The treatment of erysipelas in pigs started in time ensures recovery within 7-14 days, the spots become discolored and almost impossible to notice.
Chronic form of the disease
This form is either the result of the previous ones, or is transmitted from the pregnant mother to the baby. The disease affects the functioning of the heart, joints and causes the death of skin
Erysipelas in young pigs are difficult, and therefore their treatment should be given priority.
First of all, they vaccinate all individuals that have not yet become infected. To date, vaccination against erysipelas in pigs is the only effective system to combat such a disease. There is even a whole science of epizootology, which studies the manifestation of the epizootic process during which the infection affects a large number of animals.
There is also a vaccine from strain BP-2 live dry. The vaccine against swine erysipelas is produced from the production strain BP-2 Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae. It is packaged in ampoules or in special bottles and dried. You can recognize such a vaccine by its characteristic bright appearance.
This drug forms resistance to the pathogen and is safe for animals of any age.
Use this tool must be clearly in agreement with the doctor and having previously studied the instructions for use. The vaccine is given intramuscularly. Syringes must be disposable and sterile. For the introduction of the drug requires alcohol lotion. Young animals after weaning are immunized twice: the first time, starting at the age of 2 months and again after 25-30 days. The next vaccination is carried out after 5 months.
For individuals older than 4 months, the drug is administered once, and then the procedure is repeated after 5 months. Females are given a vaccine 30-35 days before farrowing. If there is a threat of an epidemic on the farm and individuals become ill without exception, the drug is administered regardless of when it was put before. To avoid the spread of infection, infected individuals are isolated. When the animals have completely healed, the next vaccine can be given no earlier than 2 weeks later.
It is very important to monitor the condition of the livestock after vaccination. In some cases, there are minor ailments.
In order to keep the cattle as ill as possible, preventive measures and cleanliness must be observed. The pen must be processed once a week using bleach and a formaldehyde solution.
Every day you need to check the drinking bowls and feeders for contamination. If dirt gets into the feed, it is better to replace it.
Liquid mixers should be given in minimal quantities, and if the animal cannot eat them, they will not be given such food again. Individuals should be fed so that they have the necessary elements and vitamins.
When keeping a whole number of pigs, it is advisable to invite a veterinarian to the farm and immediately vaccinate the necessary individuals, conduct a routine examination. Do this no less than once every 6 months, even if the herd does not bother anything.
When working with any animals, the farmer is advised to wear protective clothing and gloves. The work field with the infected individual is completely disinfected.
If laboratory diagnosis has been carried out and the disease has been confirmed, treatment should be started. How to treat pig’s face? At home, the pig remove the signs of erysipelas, lower the temperature, remove toxins and the pathogen from the body. In general, antibiotics of the penicillin group are prescribed by veterinarians, they must be used together with serum against pig erysipelas disease. One ampoule of the antibiotic is diluted with all known saline and a sick pig is administered during the first days after infection. The next day, another 2 such injections are carried out with a difference of 6 hours.
In addition to conventional penicillin, several derivatives of it are allowed: potassium and sodium salt, bicillin 3 and 5.
It is recommended to administer pig preparations for the heart along with antibiotics, only their dosage should be discussed with a veterinarian. They also treat with bicillin. On the basis of numerous studies, employees found that bicillin-3 at a dose of 20, 000-40, 000 IU / kg protects the piglet from the causative agent of erysipelas for 72 hours. At home, on the recommendation of a veterinarian, it is used for prevention.
The main means of combating erysipelas of pigs is considered to be serum. The vaccine for swine erysipelas is administered intramuscularly, the volume depends on the weight of the animal. The exact dosage will tell the doctor or instructions for use, issued with the drug. Serum is administered daily for 5-7 days.
You can not choose a treatment regimen yourself and you can not prescribe drugs. All medicines are selected by the veterinarian individually, taking into account the characteristics of the body of each individual.