Pear vaccination in spring, summer and autumn
A pear is a rather finicky tree. Therefore, many gardeners do not dare to plant this fruit crop in a personal plot. But, if you plant a pear on another plant, you will be able to harvest a good crop, even in lean years. Consider how to properly vaccinate pears in the spring, autumn and summer.
What is the pear planted on
Before considering how to plant a pear in spring, autumn or summer, let's talk about which trees you can plant this fruit culture on.
Mountain ash and apple tree
You can plant a pear on a mountain ash (red and aronia) or an apple tree. As for mountain ash, it is worth noting that this tree is resistant to frost. Accordingly, if you plant a pear on a mountain ash, you will increase the resistance of the fruit to frost. We also note that mountain ash, in contrast to the fruit crop in question, grows on swampy soils and ground-saturated soils. Accordingly, vaccinating pears on mountain ash is the only option that will allow you to grow fruit on excessively moist soil.
You can still plant the pear on the apple tree. The result is an interesting hybrid, on which the fruits of both fruit crops will hang in the summer. But grafting on an apple tree is quite difficult to do. And even with the technology of vaccination, cuttings do not always take root on the apple tree.
It is possible to plant a pear of one variety on a pear of another variety. On an unpretentious variety you need to plant one that needs this procedure. So it is possible to improve the frost resistance of some varieties. Experts recommend planting a varietal pear on trees of the so-called semi-cultivated varieties. They are the most unpretentious and perfect for the climate of Russia. It is not recommended to use the ditch for grafting. Practice shows that if wild fruit culture is used as a stock, then the fruits are small.
You can also plant a pear on a chokeberry, quail, quince or hawthorn. But the pear grafted on a hawthorn or quince will not be tall. Accordingly, she will be unable to produce a good crop. Therefore, experts recommend choosing a mountain ash, apple tree or pear of another variety.
You can still instill a capricious pear on cherry plum or plum. But far from always from this hybrid it turns out to grow a high-yielding plant. In addition, the plum is prone to overgrowth from the roots.
At the moment, there are 3 ways to vaccinate pears:
- budding (vaccination with a kidney or eye);
- split vaccination;
- vaccination for bark.
The most effective method of scion cannot be distinguished. Each of them has advantages and disadvantages. In addition, one or another method of scion can be used only in certain situations. If the stock is thicker than the scion, then it is advisable to use a graft in a split. In spring, it is best to plant a pear over the bark. It is the easiest way to make a bag on a pear. Therefore, this method is advisable to use for beginner gardeners.
Follow the instructions
Let's take a step-by-step look at how to properly vaccinate a varietal pear in each way individually.
As a stock for grafting with an eye, it is impossible to use the old garden culture. You need to use a young seedling, which can be purchased in the nursery. At the time of the scion, the young seedling should already be well rooted.
- We remove the part of the earth that covers the root neck. We remove all shoots located at a distance of 10-12 cm from the ground. We make an incision resembling the letter T in shape. The length of the incision is 30 mm.
- With the cuttings of a varietal fruit crop, we cut a kidney with an adjacent bark and part of a branch that has already managed to develop well. This can only be done correctly using an oculant knife. The length of the cut part of the branch should be equal to the length of the cut on the stock.
- Using a sharp knife, push the bark apart at the notch into the rootstock, and insert the cut kidney into the hole obtained.
- We wrap the incision with film, leaving a kidney on the surface.
You can remove the harness no earlier than November. But experts recommend leaving it until spring. If the seedling develops quickly, and the dressing begins to pinch the trunk, replace it with a new one.
It is advisable to use this method in cases where the bark condition does not allow the use of other methods. Spring vaccination of the pear with a splitting method involves the use of cuttings, which must be prepared in the fall.
- We cut or file down the stock at a height of 150 mm from the ground. We clean it from dirt, and remove the old bark.
- Using a sharp garden tool, we split the stock. You can do it cross to cross, but you can cross. The depth of the splitting should be 75% of the diameter of the stock. If we are talking about an adult tree, after which a wide stump remains, then the depth of the splitting should be 5-7 cm. Before splitting such a stump, we cut the bark. If this is not done, then when the hemp splits, torn edges of the cortex are formed, and the graft may not take root.
- At the ends of the cuttings we make an oblique cut that will contact the cambium of the stock. The diameter of the cut should be 75% of the diameter of the shank. On the handle should be at least 3 eyes.
- We place the graft in the cleavage of the stock, while combining the cambial layers. If the stock is much larger than the scion, several grafts can be grafted.
- The place of vaccination is covered with cling film or elastic tape, which can be purchased in specialized stores. All vaccination sites that remain open are treated with garden var.
The advantage of this method of scion is the ability to use old trees that have already begun to bear fruit as a stock. With other methods, only seedlings that have not yet begun to bear fruit can be used as rootstock.
Vaccination for bark
When vaccinating over bark, trees whose age varies from 2 to 10 years are best used as rootstock. As a scion we use fresh branches, but not cuttings harvested in autumn.
- We clean the stump used as a stock.
- Using a sharp tool, we make holes in the rootstock bark with a length of 40 mm. Then, carefully separate the bark from the tree trunk. A small pocket should form. If the diameter of the scion allows, we cut it in several places.
- Scion branches are cut into cuttings. At least 3 well-developed buds should be present on each handle.
- We insert a branch-stalk with a cut inside. 2 mm cut should protrude above the cut of the trunk.
- We tie the place of vaccination with polyethylene or twine. Open areas are treated with garden var.
The best time for grafting
Vaccination of a pear by budding is done in the summer. Experts recommend performing this procedure in the second half of July or in August. Also in the summer you can plant a pear over the bark. And the best time for grafting a pear is spring. It is advisable to plant grafts at a time while the stock is still in a state of sleep. Less suitable time is the awakening of the kidneys and the beginning of the movement of juice through the tissues of the garden culture.
You can vaccinate seedlings in winter. Do it from January to April. Winter vaccination involves the use of annual seedlings that are dug up and stored in the cellar or basement in the fall. The timing of vaccination is regulated by the timing of planting seedlings in the ground. All work must be completed 14 days before planting. If early planting of seedlings is planned, then we begin to engage in their grafting in the first month of winter. Winter vaccination involves the use of seedlings, the diameter of the stem of which is at least 7 mm. The aerial part of the seedlings is shortened to 30 cm. Most often, in winter, the fruit crop is inoculated with a split method.