Mushrooms of the Astrakhan region
In the Astrakhan region there are many mushroom places that will please with the variety of species found here. Forests in this area bear fruit from spring to late autumn.
Mushrooms of the Astrakhan region
Mushrooms of the Astrakhan region include both edible and poisonous species, so you need to know how to distinguish them and what features are inherent in them. Each species has a certain taste, so mushrooms are cooked in different ways: some are suitable only for pickling, while others are suitable for frying, boiling or freezing.
According to the degree of edibility, mushrooms of the Astrakhan region are divided into 4 categories:
- 1st category: edible;
- 2 category: conditionally edible;
- 3 category: inedible;
- 4th category: poisonous.
The first two categories are divided into 4 more categories by taste.
The most delicious and fragrant ones belong to the 1st category : porcini mushrooms, saffron mushrooms, mushrooms.
The category 2 includes white and pink thrills, oak trees, moths, forest mushrooms and Polish mushrooms. Cooks often fry and stew with seasonings, and then serve as side dishes.
Chanterelles, mosswicks, honey agarics, russula and morels, which have a weak aroma, but at the same time are equally tasty, are ranked in category 3 .
But the 4th category is conditionally edible mushrooms that require pre-treatment (soaking and cooking) before the main cooking process. They are often salted (hot or cold) or marinated with spices. For hot dishes, the heat treatment takes at least 1 hour. This group includes flywheels, dung beetles, milkmen, etc.
They go on a “silent hunt” with the onset of heat, but especially large yields occur in the fall, when the air is still warm, but already saturated with moisture.
In Astrakhan, there are more than 100 species of mushrooms.
Among the edible mushrooms under last year’s foliage in Astrakhan are mushrooms:
- table mushrooms;
- birch sponges.
Sponges are rare - this is one of the few types of edible polypore. You can find them at the site of fallen trees. Champignons grow throughout the season, from spring to late autumn. Tabular champignon sometimes reaches a huge size. He has an unusual hat that makes him easily recognizable. It shows patterns in the form of squares, pyramids or rhombuses, which actually gave the name.
Mushrooms love humidity
In summer, other species are added to them:
- breasts are white and black;
- oyster mushrooms.
In autumn, the following species are harvested:
- honey mushrooms;
Valuy and lumps are often found in forest stands. In mushroom places in the north of the region, occasionally oak trees are encountered. Honey mushrooms grow before the onset of cold weather. Meadow honey agaric and meadow champignon are found on open edges. These are the most common edible species in this area.
To avoid unpleasant consequences, you must observe safety precautions. Ingestion of poison leads to poisoning, often with a fatal outcome.
The following species are poisonous:
- satanic mushroom;
- yellow-skinned champignon (yellowing, or ginger);
- fly agaric;
- death cap;
- rowing (talker);
The outwardly attractive appearance of the fly agaric is misleading. It’s better not to pick it up at all. Some species are so toxic that their poison is absorbed into the skin and enters the bloodstream, after which severe poisoning occurs.
Irina Selyutina (Biologist):
Amanita is an extremely rare exception among the famous poisonous species - it has a pleasant aroma and quite attractive taste. Therefore, it very often happens that small children (and often not small ones), attracted by these qualities of it, dodging the “intrusive” control of adults can try this forest wonder. Therefore, it is worth going to the forest to talk with the children, to warn them of a possible danger. Muscarine - a toxin that is part of the fly agaric acts as a drug. After using it, after about 0.5-2 hours, severe vomiting begins, saliva and sweat are plentiful, pains appear in the abdomen. The breathing becomes hoarse and sputum begins to stand out. Very often, these manifestations are accompanied by more delirium and hallucinations, and in especially severe cases, convulsions occur, a person can lose consciousness. Therefore, the help of a qualified physician is needed.
The most common poisoning occurs due to pale grebe. This is one of the most poisonous mushrooms. He is called the "forest killer." The poison of this organism is able to penetrate edible fungi growing nearby through the mycelium or when spores get on the surface of nearby growing representatives of other edible species ..
A yellowing champignon or yellow-skinned peppercorns grows in deciduous forests. Its use will not lead to death, but it is considered inedible and causes intestinal disorders. In order not to confuse it with edible champignon, you need to carefully look at the cut, it will turn yellow. The odor of this organism is unpleasant, it gives off phenol, as they often say “ink” or “pharmacy”. If you didn’t catch it in the forest, you will definitely feel it during cooking (frying) - heat treatment enhances it several times.
Enotaevsky district is rich in mushrooms
Mushroom pickers prefer the Volga-Akhtuba floodplain for quiet hunting, where many different types of mushrooms grow.
- Enotaevsky district: considered one of the best places. Behind the village of Zamyany there is a huge forest, in which there are many mushroom places. In the spring it is flooded, the soil is saturated with moisture and retains it on hot summer days, so there are so many mushrooms throughout the season. On the tree trunks, mushroom pickers meet oyster mushrooms and sulfur-yellow tinder fungi.
At the end of May, a bright tinder appears, which is considered conditionally edible, but when properly processed, they are pickled and salted. Fried mushrooms are reminiscent of chicken meat.
- Rycha River: along its channel mushroom pickers mushrooms throughout the season. To get there simply along the main highway Astrakhan-Krasny Yar.
Outwardly unusual mushroom “titmouse” (dirty rowing) is found on forest outskirts. Its description indicates a fabulous lilac-lilac color. Some consider it poisonous and destroy mycelium, tearing mushrooms out of the ground, which is called "with the root." But with proper cooking, the titmouse turns into a real delicacy and has a pleasant exotic taste.
- Ikryaninsky district, Eric Nozhovsky: this is another good area for picking mushrooms. In its forests under the mulberry (mulberry) trees, many champignons and honey agarics are found.
Benefit and harm
All mushrooms, without exception, have both beneficial and harmful properties.
The main component of forest organisms is water. In mushrooms there is fiber, potassium and calcium, which restore cells in the human body.
A huge amount of amino acids helps prevent kidney diseases and relieves kidney stones, stimulates the brain, improves heart function and stabilizes blood sugar.
Dishes containing this ingredient are considered difficult to digest. In the legs there is a greater amount of chitin compared to hats, which slows down the digestion processes and, if not properly prepared, causes putrefactive processes in the digestive system. It is important for people suffering from diseases of the gastrointestinal tract to observe the measure in eating mushrooms.
Mushrooms of the 4th category are pre-treated: they are carefully selected, soaked from 3 hours to several days, so that toxic and bitter substances completely come out of them and cannot harm the health.
All mushrooms absorb toxins from the soil and air, so you can not harvest near roads, industrial enterprises, cattle burial grounds, settlements and other places where there is an active release of various compounds into the environment.
People suffering from intolerance to the product should not eat such food.
Pregnant women eat them with the permission of the gynecologist. Children under 7 years of age should not be given these products.
Astrakhan mushrooms include more than 100 species, both familiar to the look and exotic. Among them are edible and poisonous, so as not to be confused, you need to know the distinctive features.