Mushroom variety Black truffle
There are several expensive varieties of Mushrooms, among which Black Truffle stands out for its taste. This species is considered a delicacy and is used in gourmet cuisine. Finding a truffle is not easy due to the nature of its growth.
Mushroom variety Black truffle
Black Truffle (Tuber melanosporum) belongs to the Truffle family. The mushroom is also called perigord truffle. because most grows in the French region of Perigord. The variety is the most refined and expensive.
The mushroom has the form of a disproportionate tuber. The body has 4 to 6 faces. The diameter of the tuber is 7-8 cm. The weight of one mushroom is up to 400 gr. The color of the surface depends on age. The young truffle is dark brown. Over time, the top layer becomes charcoal black. If you press on the surface of the body, the color will turn dark orange.
The pulp is light, with time it darkens with spores and acquires a purple hue. The body structure is marble, with many white or light pink veins. The taste of the pulp is saturated, with a chocolate note and light bitterness. The aroma is pronounced.
Spores are oval or spindle-shaped, strongly curved. The color of the spore powder is dark brown. Fruit bearing varieties lasts from early December to mid-March.
Black Perigord truffle grows not only in Perigord. Mushrooms of this variety are found in areas of France:
The species is found in the north of Spain and Italy. The leader in the number of artificially grown black truffles is China. The Chinese counterpart is more common due to the low price. However, the quality of such mushrooms is inferior to French.
In addition to the classic Black Truffle, there are other varieties with similar characteristics:
- Russian summer black truffle (Tuber aestivum). It reaches 12 cm in diameter, the mass of the mushroom is up to 450 g. With age, the fruit changes the color of the pulp from white to gray-brown. Taste gives nuts. Places of growth - Crimea, the Caucasus, the European part of Russia. The variety grows under pines and oaks. The fruiting period is from June to mid-October.
- Black Burgundy Truffle (Tuber mesentericum). The fruit has a rounded shape and weight up to 310 g. The body diameter is up to 9 cm. The flesh has a light brown tint with a marble structure. The aroma contains notes of cocoa.
- Black winter truffle (Tuber brumale). The fruit is rounded in shape, from 7 to 20 cm. The mass of the fungus reaches 120 g. The surface of the body has a purple hue and is covered with growths. The aroma is musky, pronounced. The fruiting period is the beginning of November - mid-February. Hazel or linden are required for growth. Places of growth - Italy, Ukraine and southwest Switzerland.
- Himalayan black truffle. (Tuber himalayensis) Fruit weighing up to 50 grams, with a pronounced nutty flavor. Finding tubers is difficult due to the small size of the fruit.
The mushroom grows at a depth of 35 cm
Truffle belongs to marsupials. Such varieties according to the description have such growth features:
- The edible body is in the ground, at a depth of 10 to 35 cm.
- The soil for growth should contain lime.
- Truffle needs trees to grow well.
This variety needs hazel or oak roots. Other trees are not suitable for proper development.
Marsupials create a symbiosis with forest planting. The tree will provide the truffle with the necessary complex of minerals, and the mycelium enhances the ability of the root system to absorb water and salt.
Composition and useful properties
Calorie content of the product is 25 kcal per 100 g. Mushroom composition:
- proteins - 3 g;
- fats - 0.5 g;
- carbohydrates - 2 g.
Low calorie allows you to consume black truffle during the diet.
- They improve metabolism in the body, lower cholesterol and blood sugar.
- Ascorbic acid reduces the risk of disturbances in the functioning of the large intestine and helps to absorb iron and calcium.
- B vitamins improve the functioning of the endocrine system and adrenal glands.
Vitamin B3 is also responsible for the regeneration of the epidermis.
The most important property of the Black Truffle is its effect on the human reproductive system. The variety treats impotence in men and increases the woman's chances of becoming pregnant.
In nature, the mushroom is a forest nurse. Black truffle often grows near old trees, processing their roots. Also, the variety protects the root system of healthy trees from late blight.
Truffle is not recommended to be added to the diet in the presence of stomach or intestinal ulcers. And also not recommended for children under 12 years of age and pregnant women.
Contraindications include individual intolerance to the product. In the presence of an allergic reaction to ordinary mushrooms, truffle is also better not to eat.
A variety can be harmful to the environment. Where the mycelium grows, other plants die from a lack of nutrients and water.
Finding a mycelium is not easy
To assemble the highest quality Black Truffles, special training and a helper animal are required. The best searchers for this variety are pigs. They hear the smell of mushrooms for 20-25 m. The animal’s love for fruits is a danger - pigs sometimes break loose and tear the soil, harming the mycelium.
Also, specially trained dogs are used for searching. Training takes a lot of time - puppies are given milk with the addition of truffle and forced to look for boards with a mushroom smell. A trained bloodhound is expensive.
Red flies will help to find mycelium. They lay larvae in truffle places, so a large accumulation of such insects indicates a mushroom glade.
The tubers grow one at a time. After finding them, it is important to carefully dig and cut the mushroom, so as not to damage the mycelium and the fruit itself. It is better to tear the earth apart with gloves on. The fruit is cut with a thin knife.
Using Black Truffle
The variety is rarely used in daily cooking due to its high cost. Truffle is used in fine French and Italian cuisine. Perigorsk view is consumed fresh, with the addition of walnuts and honey. Also, this variety is used in salads and slices.
A popular dish is truffle marinated in white wine, which is served thinly sliced with gourmet alcoholic beverages.
Less quality varieties are used for making sauces and marinades for meat. They are also put in the stuffing of the test items along with the minced rabbit.
Truffle has also found its application in medicine. It is used for various purposes:
- Grade juice treats eye diseases.
- Black truffle powder is used for compresses for gout and joint pain.
- Fresh mushroom is a powerful aphrodisiac.
Fruits are also used in cosmetology. In elite clinics, with the help of masks based on Black Truffle lighten the skin and remove pigmentation. Also, fruits help get rid of wrinkles and adjust facial contours.
To grow a variety at home, you need to purchase seedlings and infect them with mycelium. For growing varieties such tree species are suitable:
- Stone Oak.
- English oak.
- Hollow ordinary.
After inoculation, the seedlings are placed in a greenhouse, in which strict quarantine must be observed. Trees should be planted after 12 months, when the seedlings have reached 25 cm in height.
For planting, soil with a high content of calcium and humus is suitable. It is better to grow a variety in a dry climate. The average ambient temperature in summer should not exceed 25 ° C. Landing is carried out in the spring, after the end of the frost. Landing scheme - 5x4. The landing depth should be at least 75 cm.
Harvest in the first years will be small - 3-4 kg per ha. Over time, the number of mushrooms will increase. 5 years after planting, with proper care, collect up to 20 kg of truffles.
Black truffle is a delicacy. The classic perigorsk variety is found in France, Italy and Spain, however, some subspecies grow in Russia and the CIS countries.
The search for fruits is complicated by the peculiarities of their growth. The culture is actively used in cooking and medicine.