Mushroom propagation by budding
Mushroom propagation by budding is a way to expand the habitat and maintain their appearance. In addition to the kidneys, they can spread by spores, parts of the mycelium, and actually by sexual contact.
Mushroom propagation by budding
A type of asexual reproduction, in which a young organism is formed on the mother's body, with time it separates or remains. In the latter case, a colony is obtained.
- Cells in a specific area divide, starting this process by dividing the nucleus.
- When a sufficient number of cells has formed (a young organism has appeared), a constriction is formed. It separates the "kidney" from the mother's body.
- Within 2 hours, the new individual is disconnected and falls on the substrate or transferred by people, animals, and the wind.
A similar method is inherent in such species as yeast and lichens.
Irina Selyutina (Biologist):
Yeast is characterized by several methods of vegetative propagation: budding, division and budding division. When budding, round, ovoid or oval cells appear. Budding is the most characteristic and widespread method of vegetative propagation in yeast. It begins with the appearance of a small spherical outgrowth on the surface of the cell, which gradually increases in size and then, as it were, “unfastens” from the mother cell, leaving a scar or kidney scar on it.
Lichens reproduce mainly vegetatively:
- sections of the thallus;
- formations from algae cells and fungus filaments - isidia and soredia.
Advantages and disadvantages
Reasons why mushrooms reproduce by budding:
- Increased chances of survival: the process slows down under adverse conditions or accelerates under favorable conditions.
- Features of resettlement: a developed kidney (organism) already has the necessary set of organelles, therefore, it needs only a successful substrate. The spore should germinate in a nutrient medium and has almost no stock of substances. Temporarily the appendix is in a dormant state, this delays the launch.
- Colonization as an adaptation to survival: if the process did not end with the separation of the young organism, then it remains on the one hand - part of the mother’s body, but at the same time it has an autonomous set of organelles and can independently function on the other. Colonial organisms survive better under adverse conditions. Bright representatives of this type are mold fungi.
According to the set of genetic material, daughter cells are a copy of the mother cells. Therefore, the disadvantage of this method is the inability to obtain the nuclear DNA of another organism. Although this minus is not important for the lower representatives of the kingdom, they are quite resistant to external conditions without the need to obtain new genetic material. Such colonies formed by budding are called clonal.
Species of organisms
Some mushrooms reproduce in two ways at the same time.
The following fungi reproduce by budding:
Note: ascospores are budged in marsupials, basidiospores in smut fungi.
These are the lowest representatives of the kingdom. Other methods of the vegetative method are available to higher fungi, including cap mushrooms: spore formation, reproduction by parts of the mycelium. And the yeast lost this ability due to the transition to existence in liquid and semi-liquid substrates. Marsupial division of the mycelium is available. And smut representatives reproduce by a double method: they throw out spores that turn into conidia. They grow on a nutrient substrate and expand by budding.
Certain taxa combine the methods of spore and mycelium. Then the parts of the mycelium become a place of maturation and fusion of spores.
Also, this path is characteristic for:
- Intestinal animals.
Budding among animals is available invertebrates and unicellular. In higher representatives, the genital tract predominates.
Other methods of vegetative propagation
These include a method with spores and division of the mycelium, that is, mycelium. These paths are inherent in the higher representatives by the type of mushrooms, chanterelles, and whites. Their mycelium spreads over many kilometers in the earth.
This feature is used when you need to plant fruiting bodies on the site. Part of the mycelium with the ground is removed and mixed with the local substrate.
Young mycelium can be damaged if it is not sufficiently rooted in the soil. Therefore, fruiting bodies are not torn out of the ground, but cut off - so there is a guarantee that new ones will grow soon.
Disputes are the most mobile method of all. In cap mushrooms, they ripen in plates and spill out. They are carried away by the wind, animals and people carry it. Thanks to this, the view extends over long distances. Some classes are propagated by motile spores - zoospores.
The division of lower fungi by budding gives organisms advantages in preserving the species and capturing the territory. The kidney allows you to create an organism that is already ready for the external environment or part of the future colonies. The method has more pros than cons, so many subspecies choose this type of reproduction.