Mountain pine Pumilio - description, rules of planting and care
The evergreen mountain pine of Pumilio with creeping shoots creates a dense and lush squat crown in the shape of a ball. The compact bush grows well in a sunny place, easily tolerates drought, severe frosts and is not picky about soil fertility. Therefore, it is readily used in landscape design in the central and middle regions.
Mountain pine Pumilio - description, rules of planting and care
Description of the external parameters of the mountain pine Pumilio (full name pinus mugo var. Pumilio):
- the maximum height of an adult plant is 3 m, width is 2.5-3 m;
- in young bushes, the shape of the crown is flat-round, pillow-shaped, in older bushes it becomes widespread;
- grows slowly - annual growth is 5 cm in length, 12 cm in width;
- needles are green, prickly, length - 2-3 cm;
- shoots are light brown, erect;
- the first fruiting occurs at the 7th year of cultivation;
- fruits are cone-shaped cones of chocolate color; their sizes vary from 3.5 to 4.5 cm.
The culture has good winter hardiness, distributed in the Central and Eastern parts of Europe, in the Balkans and in the Carpathians.
The price of a seedling with a height of 40 to 70 cm is 1200 rubles.
It is not difficult to grow this needles on the site, the main thing is to choose high-quality material, plant it correctly and provide the necessary care.
You can buy this plant in a specialized nursery or in a horticultural store, the main thing is that it corresponds to all the wilted characteristics of the variety.
When choosing, carefully inspect the aerial part - one should be alive, shoots and a trunk with even and smooth bark, needles of a uniform saturated green color.
The optimal seedling height for planting is 50-70 cm. It is better to take bushes 2-3 years old with closed roots, which during transplantation to the site will not dry out.
Location and soil
Pumilio pine tree loves to grow in a sunny place with deep groundwater and protection from drafts.
The soil is light, loose - sandy, clay, siliceous with a neutral level of acidity and a low degree of salinity. In a shady area on salty land, the plant begins to reduce immunity against disease and slowly grows.
This variety perfectly tolerates gas contamination and dust, therefore, it can fully develop both on the garden plot and outside, along the roads.
To deoxidize the soil, 300 g of limestone, chalk, dolomite or calcite must be added to a 1 m² bed. Sand and peat will help to make it loose and light - 2 buckets each. To increase nutrition, an additional bed is sprinkled with 100 g of superphosphate, 80 g of potassium nitrate and 70 g of azofoska. Then carry out deep digging and leveling.
This compact plant needs to be planted according to the scheme - 1x1 m.
First, dig holes with a depth of 60 cm and a width of 80 cm. Then, drainage of pebbles, gravel or broken brick is laid at the bottom, then half is filled with a nutritious composition of sand, peat and sod land (1: 1: 1). They lower the earthen lump, fill all the voids with fertile soil, tamp and spill abundantly - in a bucket for one seedling.
When planting, it is important that the root neck of the bush is slightly higher than the surface of the soil, otherwise it will quickly decay and die.
To prevent the rapid evaporation of moisture, the trunk area is mulched with peat earth or sawdust needles.
Caring for a coniferous shrub is easy, all he needs is regular moisturizing, periodic fertilizing, pruning and loosening.
Pine should be watered as needed
The first hydration is carried out a week after planting, then every 2 days for 10 days. Moisture promotes rapid rooting and building green mass. The frequency of subsequent irrigation depends on weather conditions and precipitation.
Loosening and mulching
The loosening procedure is needed to maintain the moisture and breathability of the soil. Loosen the soil superficially and a day after each watering. In addition weed aisles and remove unnecessary vegetation.
Mulching with peat and sawdust of conifers helps maintain the acidity of the soil necessary for the conifer, protects the roots from drying out and inhibits the growth of weeds.
The main care for this crop is the regular application of fertilizers. In the first year of planting, plants do not need food, because the nutrients laid on the site will last until spring.
In late April or early May, they can be fed with nitrogen-containing preparations - nitrophos, ammophos or urea. Prepare a solution of 30 g per 10 l of water. Consumption per seedling - 5 liters.
The second time, young shrubs are fed with a complex mineral composition of superphosphate (15 g) and potassium nitrate (10 g) in a bucket of water. The amount of nutrient fluid per plant is 5 liters.
For this miniature shrub, a shaping haircut is not needed, because it initially forms a dense, beautiful ball crown.
Sanitary pruning, which is carried out in early spring, will not be superfluous - all branches damaged by frost, winds, diseases and parasites are removed. A sterile secateurs are used for this operation, and the sections are irrigated with a solution of copper sulfate to avoid infection.
Shelter for the winter
Adult plants easily tolerate wintering without additional shelter - the only thing they need is hilling of the near-trunk zone with peat.
Young seedlings have weak immunity, so they are first mulched, then the branches are tightly tied to the central conductor with a rope or twine. They cover the aerial part with fir spruce or burlap. Shelter is removed in the spring - in April, when the sun is not so active.
There are three ways to propagate this culture - seeds, cuttings and grafting. The most effective and fastest way is with the help of cuttings.
To do this, use an adult plant from the age of 5 years, cut apical shoots up to 20 cm long with a piece of last year’s bark (heel). The lower part is cleaned, dipped for an hour in a solution of a growth stimulant and immediately planted in a nutritious, moist substrate from sod land, peat and sand (1: 1: 1).
You can keep cuttings in a greenhouse or at home, providing several important conditions:
- temperature conditions within 20-23 ° C;
- humidity at 60%;
- daily airing;
- irrigation as the earth dries up;
- weed removal and loosening.
As soon as the first shoots on the shoots appear (after about 2-3 months), you can remove the shelter, and transfer the plants to a cool place with a temperature of 18-19 ° C.
Transplantation into open ground is carried out not earlier than a year after germination in room conditions. During this period, conifers grown by cuttings will grow a good root system, grow stronger and more easily survive the resulting stress.
Such reproduction makes it possible to obtain many young specimens with all varietal characters and characteristics of the mother bush.
Diseases and Pests
Infections can infect a plant in autumn.
The peak of the development of sores near the mountain pine Pumilio occurs in the autumn period, when the weather is stable, damp and cold. These conditions are ideal for rust.
Signs of damage: the formation of numerous yellow or red spots on the trunk, shoots.
The infection spreads rapidly to other nearby trees and bushes. Therefore, it is urgent to act - on weak shrubs, remove damaged areas and treat the crown with a solution of copper sulfate or with Ridomil Gold. Dispose of severely infected specimens and burn them.
For prevention, it is better to plant needles away from birches, to avoid thickening of plantings, to thin out the aerial part in time, and to remove organs injured by the fungus.
Of the parasites, this plant is annoyed by a subclinical bug, which sucks the juices from the stems and leads to their drying out and death. For control and prevention, insecticides are used - Actellik, Aktaru, Angio. Spraying is carried out in early spring and autumn.
To cope with aphids, spider mites, scabbard and sawfly, it will be necessary to carry out triple treatment of the crown and soil around the trunk with Aktara, Skor or Fundazol.
Regular weed removal, soil loosening, compliance with planting patterns and periodic inspection for signs of damage will help prevent parasites from invading.
The small size of the plant does not need special care and perfectly takes root on any type of soil - thanks to these qualities they began to be willingly used in landscape design.
- Lush, evergreen shrubs are a great decoration for every composition in rock gardens, mixborders, rockeries, rabatka or flower beds.
- A spectacular planting will be dwarf conifers with columnar or sprawling squat juniper varieties with blue and gray needles. Such a contrast and a combination of different forms is an original design solution for a garden plot.
- The mountain pine Pumilio looks beautiful along the alleys, borders, it is used for landscaping city parks.
- Some grow undersized shrubs as potted plants and plant next to the gazebo, near terraces or arches.
- The multi-level composition looks amazing, with pine trees planted at the top, and moss and heather on the lower steps.
Differences of Pumilio from other mountain pines
You can distinguish this kind of mountain pine from other subspecies, for this it is worth familiarizing yourself with their description.
- Brevifolia. The crown is barrel-shaped, about 50 cm high. The needles are green.
- Winter Gold. A dwarf, slowly growing shrub 50x90 cm in size. The aerial part is compact, spherical with golden needles in the winter, and light green in the summer.
- Gnome. The plant is the same in height and width - about 2 m. The shape of the crown is neat, spherical, greenish-gray needles.
- Kobold. Shrub 1 m long with a wide, spherical aerial part, green needles with a bluish tint.
- Pug. Height 1.4-1.5 m, the surface is spherical, round. This variety of mountain pine grows slowly - for a year it forms about 10 cm of growth.
- Columnaris. Tall bush plant - reaches 2.5 m, circumference - 1 m.
- Ophir. Dwarf variety, the shape of the crown is flat, pin-shaped, height 35 cm, diameter - 55 cm. Golden needles.
- Frisia. Oversized plant measuring 2x1.5 m. Needles of emerald tone, closer to winter acquires a dark green hue.
- Humpy. Dwarf spherical pine 1 m long, 1.4 m in diameter.
Many of those who grow this crop for more than a year leave positive feedback. They note that the bush is practically not sick, all year round pleases with its greenery and beauty, while it can grow on any type of soil.
I like everything that the conifer is compact in shape and it combines perfectly with all types of domestic vegetation, which is why it is so eagerly used in landscape design;
Due to good growth and the ability to independently form a beautiful crown, Pumilio pine is used not only in private but also in industrial gardening - to decorate parks, alleys and other public areas.