The most common sheep breeds
When engaged in animal husbandry, many nuances should be taken into account. Not all animals are adapted to cold or warm climates. There are differences within the same species. This article will focus on sheep and sheep. Consider which breeds of sheep are popular and talk about the features of each.
The most common sheep breeds
Varieties of sheep and rams
There is a special classification of sheep. Each breed belongs to a certain type. Some sheep are valued for meat (meat breeds), others for fleece (wool breeds), and others for kurdyuk (greasy species). There are few narrowly targeted rocks. Mostly livestock breeding animals that have good productivity indicators in 2-3 directions.
There are other features that can be taken as a basis for classification. There are horned and hornless sheep, fat-tailed and not so much, hairless and covered with wool. But animals are classified precisely by the nature of the direction of the breed.
The Karakul sheep breed is one of the oldest meat varieties. It is cultivated in many European countries, in Africa, America and Asia. In addition to delicious meat, the sheep have a great skin. The Karakul sheep appeared due to the work of breeders from Uzbekistan. The peculiarity of the sheep of this breed is the presence of a long tail, but the rams do not straighten it, so it hardly reaches the hock joints.
If we talk about the features of the exterior, then the astrakhan is a humpbacked sheep with medium-length ears. The massive body is held by thin limbs that end with powerful hooves. The head, legs and neck are covered with short hair, dyed black. Over time, most of the hair, regardless of its original color, becomes gray. Breeders characterize the process of depigmentation as graying.
The wool of astrakhan sheep can be dyed black or gray. About 10% of the sheep have the color of sur. Somewhere 4% of the sheep are painted white or brown. Sometimes individuals with pink hair are found.
In addition to wool, sheep of Karakul breed are appreciated for delicious meat. The meat productivity is 65 kg for sheep and 45 kg for uterus. The weight of a newborn lamb rarely exceeds 4.5 kg. Lambs quickly gain mass, which is the advantage of the breed. From the abomasum obtained from 1-2-day-old lambs and sheep’s milk, excellent sheep’s cheeses are prepared. Breeders also earn on sheep’s wool. From sheep, it turns out to cut about 4 kg of wool per year. Sheep sheared an average of 3 kg of wool.
Fertility is another important characteristic for breeders. The herd, consisting of 100 queens, annually leads 140 lambs.
Rams with beautiful horns
The Caucasian breed of sheep was born thanks to the work of breeders of the Stavropol Territory. It belongs to the meat-wool type. This is a big sheep with long hair. The breed had a positive impact on the development of all fine-fleeced breeds. Caucasian sheep can be found throughout Russia, but it is most common in the Caucasus.
The body of Caucasian rams is proportionate. Their muscles are well developed, there are neck folds, the head, belly and legs are covered with thick hair.
In Caucasian sheep, horns are absent, in sheep they are well developed. The queens are used to improve existing ones and create new breeds. The only drawback that this breed of sheep has is the absence in some cases of thick coat on the belly and head. But such a phenomenon is not common and is due to the lack of tribal work. The absence of all the vitamins and nutrients necessary for the animal also has a negative impact on the quality of the coat; therefore, when keeping a Caucasian breed of sheep, the diet of animals should be carefully considered. Sheeps of this breed are slowly gaining weight.
Caucasian sheep are unpretentious in leaving, which ensures their popularity outside of Russia.
The meat productivity of this breed of sheep leaves much to be desired. The weight of an adult ram varies between 80-101 kg, sheep - 50-60 kg. It is worth making a reservation about the excellent taste qualities of meat, for which it is appreciated. Nastrig is an average of 7.5 kg. When processing nastrig receive 50% pure wool.
Fertility is 150 lambs per 100 queens. Milk productivity - 100 kg per 70-day period of lactation. The fat content of milk sometimes reaches 8%. The average is 6%.
Latvian dark-headed breed
The Latvian dark-headed sheep breed is the result of the work of Latvian livestock specialists whose goal was to obtain highly productive meat sheep. They did not quite cope with this task, since the indicators of meat productivity are average. The breed has spread not only in Latvia, but also in Russia.
As for the exterior, the animals have good meat forms and a strong constitution. For their weight, they look quite elegant, thanks to the thin skeleton. A short and wide enough head is connected to the body by a short neck. The rams have a broad back to match the head and the same chest, extending deep into. The body rests on widely spaced straight limbs. The white color of the rune is up to 9 cm long. Sometimes separate hairs are painted in different colors.
The live weight of the sheep is 1 centner. An adult dark-headed sheep weighs about 60 kg. This is a precocious breed. Lambs quickly gain weight due to the high milk production of the uterus during lactation (about 180 kg of milk). The net meat yield after slaughter is 60%.
Uterine fertility - 170 lambs per 100 queens. Nastrig - 5 and 3.5 kg for sheep and sheep. After processing, the nastrig remains up to 55% of high-quality wool. Based on productivity indicators, the Latvian dark-headed breed is classified as a meat-wool type.
We grow sheep for meat
Edelbay are considered the most beautiful among representatives of the meat-tallow direction. They are well stacked, kurdyuk has a square format. The height at the withers of an adult animal is 80 cm, and the body length is 82-83 cm. But these are average indicators, which can vary slightly.
The coat is black, red or brown. The latter is rare. Studies have shown that red Edelbay have lower wool and meat productivity than their black and brown counterparts.
Sheep gain up to 160 kg of weight. The average meat productivity of sheep is 115 kg, queens - 95 kg. Females gain weight faster. The weight of the newborn lamb is 6 kg. Yarks weigh 1 kg less. Already by the age of 4 months, the weight of fat tail deposited in the back of the body is 40 kg. The daily gain with proper nutrition is 200 g. Edelbai lamb meat is considered dietary and is highly regarded in the market.
This breed of sheep is not fertile. Uterus rarely brings 3 lamb a year. During lactation, sheep produce an average of 150 liters of milk with a fat content of 6%. Sometimes the fat content of milk is 9%.
The wool productivity of Edelbay sheep is also impressive. It is 5 and 2.5 kg for sheep and sheep. In this case, more than 50% of the nastrig is fluff. Dead hairs are practically absent.
The Ostfries breed is from Germany. It is universal. She is valued for meat, lard and wool.
Ostfriesian sheep have large dimensions. They have a curved nose line, on the head and thin tail there is no fleece. Long ears are directed towards the nose. Chest and back broad, drooping croup. The Ostfriesian sheep have well-developed musculature. The coat is white.
Sheeps of this breed do not differ in endurance and do not tolerate climate change, but if a purebred sheep is crossed with a local breed with endurance, it will be possible to increase the level of endurance and acclimatization.
The weight of an adult ram is 115 kg. The uterus weighs 30 kg less. By 12 months, the Friesian sheep almost reaches its maximum weight, which allows this breed to be classified as precocious. Daily growth with proper care and good nutrition exceeds 300 g.
The cut of wool is 6 and 4.5 kg per sheep and sheep, respectively. The fleece is short and soft to the touch. The net rune yield is 70%. Milk productivity - 650 kg per lactation. Some farmers breed Ostfriesian sheep just for the sake of milk with a fat content of 6.5%.
Sheep can live in the fresh air
Buubei is a meat breed, the birthplace of which is Buryatia. This Buryat sheep is also valued for its high quality fleece. Buubei sheep tolerate low temperatures well. They are suitable for pasture type maintenance. It is enough to build a canopy on the site, which will protect the animals from natural precipitation and strong winds.
Buubei are well built, they have a large body and thin legs. The body has a rectangular shape and ends with a short tail. The head is neat, the nose line is curved. Fleece is painted white and consists of fluff and axial hair. At the same time, as a percentage, down accounts for 80% of the total wool cover.
Meat productivity is 95 kg for sheep and 55 kg for sheep. This is a precocious breed. In the first 7 months of life, lambs gain 40 kg. If we talk about the net yield after slaughter, it is 50%. Meat without a specific smell inherent in mutton.
Woolen performance is low. It is 1.5 and 1 kg for sheep and queens, but the resulting wool is of high quality. Its length reaches 20 cm. As for fertility, Buubei has high rates. A flock of 100 sheep gives offspring of 95 goals. It is also difficult to find a sheep whose maternal instincts are more developed than those of the Buubei breed.
The Tashlinsky breed was bred in 2008 by livestock specialists of the Stavropol Territory. These are meat-oriented sheep, however, the Tashlinsky sheep have fleece of excellent quality and high milk production rates. Farmers also note the fertility of the Tashlins.
Representatives of this breed lack horns. They are well built, the shapes correspond to the meat orientation of the breed.
Meat productivity is 96 and 60 kg for sheep and sheep, respectively. Lambs gain weight well. The daily gain during the first 5 months is 200-220 g. Sometimes the gain reaches 400 g per day. But such results can be achieved only by organizing proper nutrition.
Wool productivity is 6.5 kg for sheep and 4.5 kg for sheep. Moreover, the net yield is more than 60%. The length of the fleece of the Tashlinsky sheep is 115 mm. A herd of 100 queens gives offspring of 160 lambs and is bright.
It is advantageous to slaughter lambs at the age of 9 months. This is due to the fact that the percentage of meat and bones in this period is 80 to 20.
Disease resistant breed
Vyatka breed was born thanks to the work of Russian livestock specialists. During breeding, the Soviet Merino and Prekos breeds were used. This is a large sheep meat-woolen orientation. It looks massive and has a square format. The advantages of the breed include resistance to many diseases, adaptability to difficult climatic conditions, unpretentiousness in food, early maturity. The head is covered with thick and long hair. The short nose is not bent, the ears are protruded to the sides.
The weight of an adult ram reaches 1 centner. A sheep weighs 50 kg less. If we talk about the maximum productivity indicators, then it is 140 and 80 kg for sheep and sheep, respectively. Meat is valued for its palatability. It can even compete with marbled beef.
Sheared wool from a ram - 6 kg. The female gives 2 times less quality fleece. Some individuals produce 12 kg of wool per year. The length of the rune is 8.5 cm. The rune yield after cleaning is 55%. A herd of 100 queens gives a litter of 140 lambs with strong immunity.
Vyatka sheep are popular in Russia and Ukraine.
The homeland of the Lacon breed sheep is France. They have high indicators of meat and dairy productivity, are valued for high quality fleece. During breeding, sheep of the Merino breed (fat tails) were used. French livestock specialists sought to get a dairy sheep. Thoroughbred Lacquers are the best dairy sheep in France.
As for the exterior, the Lacons have a well-developed skeleton, deep chest and muscular back. The semi-thin coat is painted white and yellow. This is the most common breed in France. Almost all sheep cheeses are made from her milk on the territory of this country.
An adult ram weighs about 90 kg. A sheep is 45 kg lighter. During the lactation period, the sheep gives about 150 liters of milk. Sometimes milk yield is more than 200 liters per sheep. Fertility makes lambs into a herd of 100 queens. Begin to happen bright on reaching 7 months of age.
East Friesian breed
The breeding of East Friesian sheep is carried out by German livestock specialists. Of all the Frisian breeds, it gained the greatest popularity. This is due to its high meat productivity. There are individuals whose live weight reaches 150 kg.
The sheep has high graceful legs and a small, proportionately folded body. There is no wool on the head of oblong shape, no horns. Compared to all other parts of the body, the chest is well developed. There is no fleece on the long tail. The body is covered with a uniform coat.
According to the productivity table, the weight of a sheep varies from 110 to 130 kg. A sheep weighs 40 kg less. With proper maintenance, the daily gain is 200 g. Lambs grow faster than the bright. Nastrig is an average of 3 kg (yield - 70%). A dairy sheep during a lactation period gives 650 kg of milk with a fat content of 6.5%. A purebred herd is kept primarily for milk.
Productivity indices of some breeds
It is not possible to consider a description of the breeds that livestock producers from around the world are breeding. Consider the productivity indicators of some interesting varieties bred in different countries.
- The North Caucasian breed is highly fertile (125%). Its meat productivity is 100 and 60 kg for sheep and queens.
- Great success in sheep farming was achieved by the livestock of Tatarstan. Edilbaevskaya breed, for example, is easy to maintain and has high meat productivity (100 kg). Kuibyshev long-haired breed is appreciated for the fleece. Its length is 12 cm. The meat productivity of the breed is 90 and 60 kg.
- The sheep breeds bred in Dagestan are also popular all over the world. The best Dagestan breeds, which are grown by local livestock specialists, are Gergebil fat tail, Gissar and Grozny. And, of course, the Dagestan breed, which is valued for fertility and fleece, which is annually sheared from a sheep for 3.5-4 kg.
- Kazakhstan livestock grow lamb of impressive size. So, for example, the Kazakh breed bred in Kazakhstan grows to 150 kg. The Edilbaevsky breed, which was also bred in Kazakhstan, has the same meat productivity characteristics.
- The Askanian sheep, bred by Ukrainian livestock specialists, is famous for its shearing. In sheep, it is 17.5 kg. Sheep inferior to 8 kg. But the net yield of wool provided by the Askanian sheep is only 45%. It is not homogeneous, but is of high quality.
- The Gorky sheep, common in Russia, is valued for wool, milk and precocity. Daily growth exceeds 200 g, and milk yield during lactation is 150 kg. These sheep raised in Russia are fertile and unpretentious in leaving.
- Kalmyk sheep bred in Kalmykia is very popular. It is prolific, gives up to 17 kg of tail fat and has a specific color. Her breast and head are black and the rest of the coat is white. This sheep is not like any other breed.
- Northern short-tailed sheep cannot boast of high rates of meat productivity. Annual cuts of wool leave much to be desired, but the Northern breed is distinguished by its fertility and unpretentiousness. It is ideal for a small household.
Common and Elite Breeds
If we talk about the most common breeds, then they include Gorkovskaya, Sarajinskaya, Yaroslavl, Kulundinskaya, Gusarskaya, Georgian, Charolais, West Siberian. But in different regions they are engaged in breeding breeds, the content of which will not cause trouble due to the climatic characteristics of the region and available feeds. So, in Siberia, the West Siberian meat breed is most widespread, and in Australia - sheep of the Merino breed. In Europe, such breeds with interesting names like Balbaz, Blue du Mein, Asaf, Lakayune, Finnish Landrace, Zwartbles (Dutch sheep breed), Katadin and Lincoln are popular. The West Siberian breed has high meat and wool productivity.
There are expensive elite breeds. These include the Romney March. Their coat can be painted in silver, chocolate or cream color. Romney march is a breed of meat that attracts attention with its appearance. У Ромни-марш однородной шерстью покрыты даже ноги. Большая часть породистых овец не обладает этой особенностью.
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