Methods of propagation of grapes layering
Reproduction of grapes by layering will increase the area of the vineyard due to the increase in the number of vine bushes and includes several methods.
Methods of propagation of grapes layering
The essence of layering
Grape layering - a stalk split from the uterine bush, rooted after its digging and acting as a seedling for subsequent propagation. A direct relationship with the mother plant creates the most favorable conditions for its nutrition, active development and formation of the root system.
Propagation by layering is one of the simplest methods that have proven themselves in the process of breeding difficult to root grape varieties.
At the same time, high survival rates are recorded, especially in vineyards, where plants are not susceptible to diseases of the root system. A sufficient number of subordinate roots are formed on the grape processes attached to the mother bush, which makes it possible to quickly take root in young seedlings.
Benefits and features
The advantages of this method of reproduction:
- allows you to reconstruct obsolete bushes,
- significantly increases the area of the vineyard in a short time,
- makes it possible to form bushes of an unusual shape, which is widely used in landscape design,
- preserves the properties of the parent bush,
- provides crops in the first year after planting.
Features of conducting in different seasons
Reproduction in the summer begins when the length of the vine reaches 2.3-2.5 m. More often this period falls on the last days of July-early August.
In autumn, the procedure is carried out, if necessary, to urgently receive a seedling, while providing its shelter for the winter with material whose thickness is 20-25 cm.
The choice of method depends on the technology of planting and digging.
Underground method of propagation by layering
With the underground method, almost all shoots take root
Underground propagation of grapes is recommended by choosing a strong maternal bush with high productivity, which is located in a spacious place or near substitution bushes. Conducted in stages:
- In the spring, during the pruning process on the mother bush, 2 young shoots are selected, which then will be laid in the ground. This is done closer to the ground.
- In the summer, when the shoots reach a length of 2 m, around the mother bush dig trenches to a depth and width of 0.5 m, making sheer walls and the bottom at an angle of 35-45 ° C relative to the parent bush. At the bottom, spread about 10 kg of organics mixed with earth, and watered.
- In trenches, shoots-arcs, previously cleared of foliage, stepsons and antennae, are laid. They are half covered with earth and rammed. Watered with 20 liters of water. After its complete absorption, they add soil, bringing the top of the shoot to the surface so that the growth point is above ground level.
- Arcs are watered after 4 days, during the summer conducting regular watering.
- In August, the top of the branch is broken off, which prevents the growth of the ground part and redirects the flow of nutrients to the development of the accessory root system.
- In September-October, the shoots are separated from the mother bush and placed for the winter for planting in the spring in a permanent place.
The main advantage of the underground method is a high percentage of survival and rooting.
Propagation by perennial layering
For propagation by perennial shoots, a perennial sleeve with young vines is rooted. For this purpose, a ditch is dug near the mother’s bush to a depth of 0.5 m and organic matter mixed with earth is added there. You can deepen the shoots in several ways:
- if you intend to get 1 seedling, deepen 1 shoot, leaving an apex with several eyes on the soil surface,
- if necessary to get several seedlings, all the vines are laid in a ditch, after trimming 3-4 eyes, they are pressed in several places with a wire.
As the vines grow, they add soil to the ditch and watered. Sleeves are separated and transplanted from the parent bush in the fall.
Only healthy bushes are subject to reproduction.
It will be possible to propagate grapes in this way only with the use of healthy and fruitful mother bushes that do not have lower shoots and foliage withered at the ends.
Reproduction by hilling a bush
The method of propagation of grapes by earthing up the bush head is suitable for plants with compact molding. It consists in the formation of layering due to depletion of the parent bush.
When choosing reproduction through earthing up, it is important to constantly maintain humidity for the earthed bush, since shoots are able to form the root system only in a humid environment.
In spring, when the shoots grow at least 25 cm in length, they are shortened by 1-2 eyes. The grape bush is spudded with moist, loose soil, creating a hill. In the fall, a dirt hill is dug up, and the shoots are separated together with the root system that has formed in them.
Propagation by air layering
Propagation of grapes by air layering consists in the formation of the measles system on a lignified process, for which:
- in the spring they pick up a strong shoot, clean it of foliage and make an annular incision 5 mm wide at a distance of 20 cm from the top, wrap it with wet moss and tie it with black polyethylene, roots will appear in this place,
- in the autumn, emerging shoots are cut and planted in pots, placed in a cool place.
With the air method, young sprouts are transplanted in the spring to a permanent place in the open ground.
The Chinese method of laying grapes makes it possible to get 10-20 seedlings in a short period of time. It includes:
- digging a trench in the spring to a depth of 0.25 m,
- laying on the bottom of the trench a mixture of humus, superphosphate and potassium,
- the choice on the mother bush of a strong shoot, located closer to the ground and laying it in a trench with a clip in 2-3 places with wire,
- filling the laid shoot with soil and watering,
- removal of ocelli on the remaining vine over the soil and hauling with wire,
- separation of layering from the parent bush in the fall and their transplantation.
The Chinese method allows you to propagate hard-rooted varietal varieties.
Propagation by lignified shoots
The method of reproduction by lignified layering is used in the fall. It consists in the survival of young processes through dual nutrition. Among the minuses, it is noted that completely layering of grapes is separated from the parent bush no earlier than 3 years after the procedure.
The method includes:
- digging a hole near the bush to a depth of 0.6 m, introducing organic matter mixed with earth into it,
- laying the lowest shoot in the pit, leaving the top with 3 eyes above the ground.
New grape cuttings yield the crop after the first year.
Propagation of grapes by layering allows you to quickly increase grape areas. It includes several methods, the choice of which depends on the purpose of the breeding process.